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The 1st Alabama Artillery Battalion, Companies “A”-“F”, was recruited in Mobile, Montgomery, Selma, and Eufaula, part of the “Army of Alabama,” and it was organized about the 1st of February 1861, at Fort Morgan. In the spring, the command was transferred to the Confederate government as “regulars”. Stationed at Fort Morgan and its dependencies, the battalion attained a high degree of discipline, insomuch that Union Gen’l Granger pronounced it the most perfect body of either army. Detachments of it manned the heavy artillery at Forts Gaines and Powell and rendered effective service. During the terrific bombardment of Fort Morgan, August, 1864, the battalion, “moved by no weak fears,” handled the guns until they were all knocked out of position, losing 150 k and w of about 500 engaged. The men were taken to Elmira, New York, where fully half died of smallpox (officers were taken to Fort Warren.) A small detachment, not captured, continued the fight at Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely. A small number moved to Choctaw Bluff in March 1865 and were included in the surrender of the Dept. of Alabama, Mississippi, and East Louisiana.
Field and staff officers: Lt. Cols. Robert C. Forsyth (Mobile; resigned); James T. Gee (Dallas; captured, Fort Morgan); Majors S. S. Tucker (Vermont; died in service); James T. Gee (promoted); J. M. Cary (Barbour; captured, Fort Morgan).
Armaments: Co. “A”, two 6-lb. Smoothbores (on 31 Oct 1861)
The 2nd Alabama Artillery Battalion, Companies “A”-“F”, was formed at Mobile in January 1862, with five companies later reduced to three. It was attached to the Department of the Gulf, and after January, 1864, the Department of Alabama, Mississippi, and East Louisiana. The unit was stationed at or near Mobile throughout the war and participated in the conflicts at Forts Gaines and Morgan, Spanish Fort, and Fort Blakely. With 64 officers and men, it surrendered on 4 May 1865.
Field officer: Lt. Col. James H. Hallonquist.
Armaments: Co. “A”, four 6-lb. Smoothbores (between 28 Nov 1863 and 5 Jan 1864); four 12-lb. Napoleons (between 1 May 1864 and 21 Feb 1865); Co. “E”, two 3-in. Rifles and two 12-lb. Howitzers (on 6-7 April 1862); Co. “F”, four 12-lb. Napoleons (between 29 March 1864 and 16 Dec 1864)
This company, with officers and men from Mobile, was organized and mustered in on 17 October 1861 for artillery service. The battery remained in the defences of the city of Mobile until June 1863 when it was sent to Mississippi and placed in Featherston’s Brigade. It fought at Jackson with small loss and was then ordered to Dalton, GA, where it joined the army’s retreat. It was at Resaca and lost some horses. It proceeded to Selma to re-equip and then joined Gen’l Nathan Bedford Forrest as “flying artillery.” It fought at Rome, returned to Selma to aid in the defence of that city, but was there captured.
Officers: Capts. Stephen Charpentier (resigned); John M. Jenks; Lts. John M. Jenks (promoted); L. H. Goodman; William Lee; Samuel Miller.
Armaments: Four 6-lb. Smoothbores (between 28 November 1863 and 5 January 1864), and four 12-lb. Napoleons (between 1 May 1864 and 21 February 1865).
This command was organized at Mobile on 16 October 1861, with men and officers were from that city mustered in on the 31st. The battery remained in the defence of that city untill the spring of 1862 when it moved to Corinth. It was in the Kentucky Campaign losing lightly at Munfordville, and none at Perryville. It suffered severely at Murfreesboro, where it was in Manigault’s brigade. At Chickamauga, the battery was engaged without loss; but at Missionary Ridge it lost three guns, and half its force was captured. The other half were distributed in Cobb’s (KY) and Mayberry’s (TN) battery (January 1864), and served till the end.
Officer: Capt. David Waters (promoted); Lts. William Hamilton; Charles Watkins; Samuel Battle; James M. Muldon (resigned); and Turner
Gage’s Battery was organized at Mobile, AL on 10 October 1861 and remained there in the city defenses at Ft. Gaines until the spring of 1862. Sent to Corinth, MS, on 4 March 62, the unit then marched toward TN and fought at Shiloh (6-7 April) under Brig. Gen’l James R. Chalmers and suffered many casualties. It was reorganized, 28 April 1862, and was then stationed at Mobile until 12 April 1865. The Company was variously stationed at Ft. Morgan, Ft. Gaines, Spanish River Battery, Battery McIntosh, Hitchcock’s Press, Battery “B”, and Battery Gladden. At that time, the city was evacuated and on 4 May 1865, the small company surrendered with the Dept. of Alabama, Mississippi, and East Louisiana.
Commanding offiders: Capts. Charles P. Gage, James Hill, and James H. Hutchisson
Armaments: two 3-inch Rifles, and two 12-lb. Howitzer (as of 6-7 April 1862)
This company was organized at Tuscaloosa on 29 November 1861 and reported for duty at Mobile,125 strong. The battery was recruited from Fayette, Pickens, and Tuscaloosa counties. Stationed at Fort Gaines until, after Shiloh, the battery relieved Charles P. Gage’s at Tupelo, and were given six guns. The battery skirmished at Farmington, and in the Kentucky campaign fought at Perryville with small loss. At Chickamauga, there were several casualties, and the battery lost a gun. Its pieces moved down the road from Dalton to Atlanta, losing 5 k and 25 w in casualties. The battery’s loss was small around Atlanta; but having marched with the army into Tennessee, it was overwhelmed at Nashville, losing its guns, six men k, and 22 captured. Placed in Spanish Fort, they were under fire for two weeks, with some loss. Moving up toward Marion Station, Mississippi, the battery was surrendered with the Department of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana, at Citronelle, Alabama, on 4 May 1865.
Officers: Capt. Charles L. Lumsden; Lts. George Vaughan (made surgeon); H. H. Cribbs (resigned); G. H. Gargrove (wounded, Nashville); Ed Tarrant (resigned); A. C. Hargrove (wounded, Spanish Fort); John A. Caldwell (wounded, Spanish Fort)
Armaments: Six 6-lb Rifles (two of them Parrot Rifles) (as of 19 April 1862); four 12-lb. Napoleons (between 29 March and 16 Dec 1864)
Waddell’s Alabama Artillery Battery was organized in February 1862 by an order allowing up to 20 men to be taken from each company of the 6th Alabama Regiment. Equipped with eight guns, the battery was in the Kentucky Campaign. Sent to Mississippi with Gen’l Carter L. Stevenson’s Division, the battery was badly cut up and lost nearly all its guns at Baker’s Creek. It lost more men during the Siege of Vicksburg and was there captured when the fortress fell, 4 July 1863. It was paroled later and declared exchanged on 12 September 1863. The battery was increased to a battalion and designated as the 20th Light Artillery in October 1863. Company “A” was organized at Columbus, Georgia in November 1863 and ordered to Dalton. There it became a part of the Army of Tennessee for the campaigns of 1864. At Girard, while confronting Wilson, the guns and two-thirds of the men were captured. Company “B” was also organized at Columbus in November 1863 and sent to Dalton. It participated in the Atlanta Campaigns armed with two 6-lb. and two 12-lb Blakeleys. Its losses were not severe. Ordered to Columbus, the battery fought Union Gen’l James Wilson at Girard where the men were dispersed and the guns abandoned.
[There was also a Company “C”, the Arkansas Helena Artillery, organized at Helena, Arkansas in May 1861 and transferred east of the Mississippi River. After the Battle of Shiloh and the Kentucky Campaign, it was placed in the Army of Tennessee, participating from Murfreesboro to Atlanta, from Tennessee and North Carolina. Its commanders were Capts. J. H. Calvery; A. W. Clarkson; and Thomas J. Key.]
Officers: Major James Fleming Waddell (Russell); Capts. Winslow D. Emery (Montgomery; commanding Co. “A”); and Richard H. Bellamy (Russell; commanding Co. “B”)
Armaments: consisted of four 10-lb. Parrott guns (as of 29 March 1864).
This command was organized at Eufaula, 26 February 1862, and was composed of men from Barbour and adjoining counties, 262 rank and file. The battery was still unarmed as late as 10 April 1862. Later equipped with six guns, the battery joined the Army of Tennessee (T. J. Stanford’s and J. W. Eldridge’s Battalion of Artillery) and participated in its campaigns and operations until the end, losing 48 men k and w, and 36 by disease, during its service. It was sent to Mobile and attached to the Dept. of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana in January 1865 and was surrendered at Meridian, MS, in May 1865 with about 80 men.
Officers: Capts. John W. Clark (resigned); W. A. McTyer (resigned); McDonald Oliver (KIA, Atlanta); William J. McKenzie; Lts. W. A. McTyer (promoted); McDonald Oliver (promoted); William J. McKenzie (promoted); W. H. Woods; and F. M. Caldwell.
Armaments: four 3-in. Rifles (as of 29 March 1864)
Fowler’s (Phelan’s) Artillery Battery was organized on 28 December 1861, at Davis Ford, VA. It was composed chiefly of men who had served a year in Virginia as Co. “H”, Fifth Alabama Infantry, having volunteered with R. E. Rodes as captain. The company was the first organization that re-enlisted “for the war.” The battery was on duty at Mobile for about a year. Having joined the main army, at Tullahoma, the battery was part of Gen’l Edward C. Walthall’s Brigade at Chickamauga, and there lost 10 k, 18 w, and 16 horses. At Missionary Ridge, the battery had several wounded. Placed in Gen’l Benjamin F. Cheatham’s Division, the battery lost 6 k and 9 w. On the retreat from Dalton, the guns were served almost daily. Moving with Gen’l John Bell Hood into Tennessee, the battery was engaged at Franklin and Nashville, losing 8 k and w at the latter battle. The battery was thereafter stationed at Mobile until the close of the war, and surrendered with 130 men.
Officers: Capts. William H. Fowler (Tuscaloosa; transferred); John Phelan (Montgomery; wounded, Resaca); Lts. John Phelan (promoted); Robert O. Perrin (Greene; resigned); N. Venable (Tuscaloosa); William Dailey (Tuscaloosa; KIA, Resaca); A. P. Hinton (Perry); Samuel W. Reeves (Tuscaloosa)
Armaments: four 12-lb. Napoleons (between 4 Dec 1863-29 March 1864)
The Gid. Nelson Artillery was organized at Uniontown on 2 May 1862 with men from Dallas, Marengo, Perry, and Shelby counties, in the spring of 1862. After a short time at Columbus, MS, the battery went to Mobile where it remained nearly two years. After joining the Army of Mississippi (Army of Tennessee) in January 1864, the battery was engaged at Resaca, Cassville, Kennesaw, New Hope, and Peach Tree Creek, losing lightly in each, and was complimented on the field at the latter place by Gen’l Daniel H. Reynolds. At Jonesboro, the battery lost four k and several w. It was engaged in the further operations of the army and at Nashville lost several k and had its guns captured. Thereafter, it returned to Mobile in March of 1865, and the remainder surrendered at Meridian.
Officers: Capts. Joseph Selden (Perry); Charles W. Lovelace (Dallas; captured, Nashville); Lts. R. H. Jones (resigned); Murfree (resigned); Charles W. Lovelace (promoted); E. C. England (Marengo; relieved); L. W. Duggar (Marengo); C. C. Smoot (Shelby); W. M. Selden (Perry)
Armaments: four 20-lb. Parrotts, and four 12-lb. Howitzers (on 11 Jan 1864)
Hardaway’s (Hurt’s) Artillery Battery was organized on 1 June 1861 by Robert A. Hardaway who recruited in Macon, Russell, and Tallapoosa counties, and who provided it with tents, side-arms, camp equipage, etc., at his own private expense. It was mustered into Confederate service at Lynchburg, Virginia on 21 June 1861, and it was stationed at Manassas until March 1862. From that time, the battery was a part of the Army of Northern Virginia and Gen’l James Longstreet’s artillery. It was first placed in R. A. Hardaway’s and D. G. McIntosh’s Battalion of Artillery, ant the unit served at Seven Pines, Mechanicsville, 1st Cold Harbor, White Oak Swamp, Sharpsburg, Shepherdstown, Upperville, Port Royal, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Bristoe Station, Mine Run, The Wilderness, Spotsylvania, Hanover Junction, 2nd Cold Harbor, Dutch Gap, Deep Bottom, Fussell’s Mill, Fort Field, Fort Gilmer, Fort Harrison, Henrico Poorhouse, Darbytown Road, Appomattox, and in numerous other stubborn conflicts of lesser note. The battery contained 110 men in June, 1862; 71 were present for duty at Gettysburg; and 94 were present in April 1864. It surrendered with 2 officers and 81 men at Appomattox.
Officers: Capts. Robert A. Hardaway (Macon; promoted); William B. Hurt (Russell; wounded, Gettysburg; promoted); George Arch Ferrell (Russell); Lts. Williamm B. Hurt (promoted); John W. Tullis (Pike; wounded, Gettysburg, and captured; detached); G. A. Ferrell (promoted); Jesse H. Crenshaw (Russell); and John Andrew Jackson (Russell)
Armaments: two 3-inch Rifles, and one 2.75-inch Whitworth (as of 17 Sept 1862); one 8-inch Howitzer, two 3-inch Rifles, and one 12-lb Whitworth (as of 28 December 1864)
The Jeff. Davis Artillery Battery was organized in May 1861, at Selma, composed of men from Butler, Dallas, Lowndes, Marengo, and Perry counties. It was furnished with eight guns and went to Virginia the following month. At Manassas, it was attached to Jubal Early’s Brigade. The battery was engaged at Seven Pines and at 1st Cold Harbor, it lost 18 men and 28 horses k and w. As part of T. H. Carter’s Artillery Battalion, the battery fought at Boonsboro and then suffered severely at Shapsburg. It manned the crest at Fredericksburg and fought with Stonewall Jackson’s corps at Chancellorsville, with light loss. The battalion was also engaged in frequent skirmishes and battles soon afterwards, includingGettysburg, Orange Court House, the Bristoe and Mine Run campaigns, and The Wilderness. As Spotsylvania, the battery was charged and lost three guns; half the command was captured. They were not exchanged. The remainder of the command served with a battery in Carter’s Artillery until the surrender. The unit had contained 110 men in April, 1862. It surrendered 1 officer and 26 men.
Officers: Capts. Joseph T. Montgomery (Dallas; resigned); James W. Bondurant (Marengo; promoted gradually to colonel of artillery); William J. Reese (Montgomery; wounded, Bealton; captured, Spotsylvania); Lts. A. K. Shepard (Perry; resigned); C. W. Lovelace (Dallas; resigned); William Fitts (resigned); William J. Reese (resigned); Robert Walker (Dallas; resigned); James W. Bondurant (promoted); Robert Yeldell (Butler (resigned); H. P. Thomas (Bibb; resigned); D. E. Bates (Marengo; captured, Spotsylvania); John Mitchell (Dallas)
Armaments: consisted of two 3-inch Rifles and two 12-lb Howitzers (between 20 Aug 1862 and 24 September 18620; and four 3-in Rifles (as of 1-3 July 1863).
This command was organized at Pine Level, in Montgomery County, March 1863. It was composed of men from that and adjoining counties. Attached to Gen’l James H. Clanton’s brigade, the battery was at Pollard and Mobile for some time, then in northeast Alabama and north Georgia. One section was engaged in a fight at Rome, and the battery fought at Girard, where the guns were captured. The surrender of the men soon followed.
Officers: Capts. Eliphat McWhorter; N. H. Clanton (Macon); Lts. R. J. Swearingen (Macon); Henry Goldthwaite (Montgomery); and Charles Howard (Macon)
Armaments: one 12-lb. Howitzer, and three 6-lb. Smoothbores (on 11 Jan 1864); one section armed with one 10-lb. Parrott, and one 12-lb. Howitzer (on 21 Feb 1865)
Marks Artillery Battery was organized at Montgomery on 1 March 1862, and the officers and men, nearly all from Montgomery County, were mustered in on 7 March. Ordered to Mobile, it soon after joined the Army of Tennessee. It marched into Kentucky and was engaged at Perryville with light loss. Two sections fought in the last day’s battle at Murfreesboro, losing a third of the men, two guns, and nearly every horse. Assigned to T. R. Hotchkiss’ Artillery Battaion, the battery fought at Dug Gap with light loss, but losses were serious at Chickamauga. The battery was engaged at Missionary Ridge without loss, and one section suffered severely at Ringgold Gap. The loss of men and horses at Resaca was considerable, and the battery was fully occupied on the retreat to Atlanta. In the battle of 22 July and at Jonesboro, the loss was quite severe. The guns of the battery were the first that opened at Franklin, but its loss there and at Nashville was comparatively light. Ordered to North Carolina, the battery reached Augusta and there surrendered in April, 1865.
Officers: Capts. Henry C. Semple (Montgomery; promoted); Richard W. Goldthwaite (Montgomery); Lts. Elmore F. Fitzpatrick (Montgomery; detached); John B. Scott (Montgomery; resigned); Richard W. Goldthwaite (Montgomery; promoted); E. Gl. McClellan (Montgomery; KIA, Resaca); Charles Dowd (Mobile; wounded, Resaca); Joseph Pollard (Montgomery; KIA, Murfreesboro); Derrill M. Hart (Montgomery); Henry Armstrong (Montgomery)
Armaments: four 12-lb. Napoleons (between 29 March 1864 and 1 April 1864)
This company was organized at Norfolk, VA, January 1862, by the conversion of the first Co. “G”, 3rd Alabama Infantry Regiment, to artillery service. The majority of the men were from Montgomery and had served a year in the infantry. Some months later, the battery was sent to North Carolina for garrison duty on the coast. It assisted in the capture of Plymouth with small loss, and blew up Fort Branch when the Confederate line at Petersburg was broken, and tried to join Gen’l Joseph E. Johnston. The battery disbanded at Ridgeway, NC, in April 1865.
Officers: Capts. W. G. Andrews (relieved); Edgar G. Lee (Montgomery); Lts. E. R. Spalding (resigned); E. J. Lee (promoted); J. E. Davis; William F. Williams; Sid. S. McWhorter.
Robertson’s or Dent’s Artillery Battery was organized at Pensacola, FL, on 21 December 1861, with men from Pollard and Eufaula, AL, and from Pensacola and Quincy, FL. They participated in the bombardment of Forts McRae and Pickens and were then ordered to Corinth, MS, taking part at Shiloh (2 k, 17 w), in the Kentucky Campaign, and at Murfreesboro (2 k, 23 w) and Chickamauga. It then served with the Army of Tennessee from Missionary Ridge (7 k, 21 w) to Nashville, closing the war at Mobile. In March 1864, the unit consised of 110 men, and when it surrendered on 4 May 1865, it contained fewer than 45.
Officers: Capts. Felix H. Robertson; Stouten H. Dent
Armaments: six 12-lb. Napoleons (on 19 May 1863); two 6-lb. Smoothbores, and two 12-lb. Napoleons (between 29 March 1864 and 4 April 1864)
The Alabama State Artillery Battery (also known as Ketchum’s-Garrity’s Artillery Battery) was organized at Mobile on 4 May 1861, and the officers and men were from that county. It went to Pensacola and remained there until briefly. It lost 7 k and w, and several horses at Shiloh. Attached to Gen’l Daniel Ruggles’ Brigade, it was engaged at Farmington without loss. Moving into Kentucky as part of Gen’l James Chalmers’ Brigade, its loss was light at Mumfordville. At Perryville and Wildcat Gap, the battery fought with few casualties. At Murfreesboro, the battery lost 27 men k and w, and 30 horses. The battery was more fortunate at Chickamauga, but it lost several men and two guns at Missionary Ridge. The battery was in Union Gen’l William T. Sherman’s way both by day and night as he moved on Atlanta, and it suffered considerably. It fought at Franklin and Nashville, with small loss, and it endured the siege of Spanish Fort with two men k. The battery, numbering about 80, surrendered at Meridian.
Officers: Capts. William H. Homer (resigned, 22 Dec 61); William H. Ketchum (resigned); James Garrity (wounded, Murfreesboro, Marietta); William H. Ketchum (resigned, 10 Dec 62); Lts. William H. Homer (promoted); David Bush (resigned, 61); John C. Yuille (resigned); John Slaughter (resigned, 22 Dec 61); James Garrity (promoted); David Bond (KIA, Jonesboro); Maynard A. Hassell (KIA, near Atlanta); Henry F. Carroll (died in service, 2 Feb 64); Jonathan Pressler; John W. Jackson.
Armaments: four 6-lb. Smoothbores and two 12-lb. Howitzers (on 6-7 April 1862); two 6-lb. Smoothbores and two 12-lb. Howitzers (on 19 May 1863); two 3-in. Rifles and two 10-lb. Parrots (between 29 March 1864 and 1 April 1864)
Tarrant’s Artillery Battery was organized at Pollard in June 1863 with men were from the western counties of Alabama. The battery remained at Pollard for some months until it joined the Army of Tennessee at Dalton where it served in W. C. Preston’s and D. Truehart’s Battalion of Artillery. The battery participated in the battles of Resaca, Cassville, Lost Mountain, New Hope Church, Kennesaw Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, and Atlanta, and suffered more or less in each. It then moved with Gen’l John Bell Hood towards Tennessee and was under fire at Decatur from the gunboats. At Nashville, one section of the battery was captured entire, after hard fighting, and so many men and horses killed in the other that the guns could not be drawn off. Ordered to Ft. Blakely, the men there manned eight heavy pieces, endured the perils of that siege, fired the last gun at the victor foe, and was there surrendered on 9 April 1865. They were exchanged at Vicksburg, Mississippi, on 28 April 1865 and were surrendered finally with the Dept. of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana at Citronelle, Alabama on 4 May 1865.
Officers: Edward Tarrant (Tuscaloosa; captured at Blakely); Lts. Seth Shepard (Perry; captured at Nashville); B. B. Hardwick (Tuscaloosa; wounded at Kennesaw, Nashville); E. W. Tarrant (Tuscaloosa; captured at Blakely).
Armaments: two 12-lb Howitzers and two 3-inch Rifles (as of 19 May 1864)
Waddell’s battery was organized in February 1862 by an order allowing men to be taken from each company of the Sixth Alabama. Equipped with eight guns, the battery was involved in the Kentucky Campaign. Sent to Mississippi with Gen’l Carter L. Stevenson’s Division, the battery was badly cut up and lost nearly all of its guns at Baker’s Creek. It lost quite a number during the siege of Vicksburg, and was there captured. Exchanged on 12 September 1863, the battery was increased to a battalion and designated the 20th Light Artillery Battalion in October, 1863.
Officers: Capts. James F. Waddell (Russell); Lts. W. D. Emery (Montgomery; wounded, Vicksburg); R. H. Bellamy (Russell); Alonzo O’Neal (Russell); A. H. Burch (Russell); Jefferson Bates (Russell); and Robert Harvey, all of (Russell)
Ward’s Artillery Battery was recruited from Madison County in the fall of 1862, and they mustered in at Huntsville on 10 October 1862. They served at Mobile until April 1864 and were then assigned to G. S. Storr’s Battalion of Artillery, Army of Tennessee, fighting at Kennesaw Mountain and in several battles around Atlanta. They were captured at Selma on 2 April 1865.
Officers: Capts. John J. Ward; Samuel R. Cruse
Armaments: four 12-lb. Napoleons (on 11 Jan 1864)