The 1st Alabama Cavalry was raised from Alabama Unionists at Huntsville, Alabama and Memphis, Tennessee in October, 1862 after Federal troops occupied the area. It was attached to the XVI Corps in various divisions until November 1864, when it became part of the XV Corps. During this time, its duties mostly consisted of scouting, raiding, reconnaissance, flank guard, and providing screening to the infantry while on the march.
The regiment was selected by Major General William T. Sherman to be his escort as he began his famous 1864 March to the Sea. It was assigned to the Third Division of the Cavalry Corps, Military Division of the Mississippi in January 1865. It fought at the battles of Monroe’s Crossroads and Bentonville and was present at the surrender of the Army of Tennessee at the Bennett Place.
It was sent to the District of Northern Alabama, Department of the Cumberland in June 1865. The regiment was mustered out of service at Huntsville, Alabama on October 20, 1865, with only 397 men present. Out of the 2,000 men who served in the unit during the course of the war, 345 were killed in action, died in prison, of disease or other non-battle causes, 88 were captured, and 279 deserted, with no accurate count of the number of wounded.
- (1859-1861) Andrew Barry Moore, governor of Alabama, is serving his second term of office
- (January) Platform of the Alabama Democracy adopted, Montgomery
- (February 24th) General Assembly adopts Joint Resolutions (2) to require the governor to call for elections of delegates to a constitutional convention, should a “Black Republican” be elected President of the United States
- (December 24th) Governor Andrew Barry Moore issues writs of election immediately after the meeting of the electoral college
- (December 27th) Alabama and Georgia offer troops to South Carolina, if needed
- (December 27th) Commissioners are sent to other southern states for consultation on the best course to “protect their interest and honor in the impending crisis”
- (December 27th) Commissioner S. F. Hale’s Letter to Kentucky Governor Beriah Magoffin
- (January 4th) Alabama seizes the US Arsenal at Mount Vernon, on the Mobile River, following the secession of South Carolina
- (January 5th) Alabama troops seize Forts Morgan and Gaines at the entrance to Mobile Bay
- (January 11th) “An Ordinance to dissolve the Union between the State of Alabama and other States united under the compact styled ‘The Constitution of the United States of America'” is passed
- (January 11th) Speech of E. S. Dargan at the Secession Convention
- (January 11th) Delegates to a Provisional Congress of seceded states are selected, and invitations to meet in Montgomery are issued
- (January 11th) Alabama State Convention adopts a state flag which flew for one month, until damaged by a storm
- (February 4th) The Provisional Congress of seven states assembles in Montgomery
- (February 18th) Jefferson Davis inaugurated President of the Confederate States of America; his Inaugural address at his new capital, Montgomery
- (March 4th) Provisional Congress adopts the “Stars and Bars” design of Nicola Marschall [illustration] as the national flag [above, left]
- (March 21st) The Alabama Constitutional Convention adjourned indefinitely having ratified the Constitution of the Confederate States of America
- (April 15th) The United States declares war on the Confederacy, and Alabamians began surging to military camps. Northern counties, strongly attached to the Union, openly discuss forming a new state in the Tennessee River Valley
- (October 7th) Alabama supplies 27,000 men for military service, in “twenty-three regiments, two battalions, ten detached companies of horse, and as many of foot; and five other regiments were forming”
- (December 2nd) John Gill Shorter becomes governor of Alabama
- (April) Union forces occupy the northern portion of Alabama
- (May 15th) Cruiser C.S.S. Alabama is launched
- (August) Union forces are forced out of Alabama by Gen’l Braxton Bragg’s movement into Kentucky
- (November 10th) Alabama supplies “over sixty thousand” of her citizens for military service
- (December 24th-30th) US forces stage a raid up the Choctawhatchee River toward Geneva and seize the steamship, Bloomer
- (April 11th-May 3rd) Streight’s Raid in Alabama and Georgia aimed at cutting the Western & Atlantic Railroad
- (April 30th) Streight fights a rearguard action at Day’s Gap, in Cullman County against Gen’l Nathan B. Forrest [illustration] and Col. Philip D. Roddey
- (May 2nd) Emma Sansom guides Forrest’s command across Black Creek
- (May 3rd) Streight’s entire command (1500 men) is captured
- (September 2nd) The Alabama legislature approves the use of slaves in Confederate armies
- (December 1st) Thomas H. Watts becomes governor of Alabama
- Captured Union soldiers are housed in Cahaba Federal Prison, near Selma
- (January 26th) Confederate forces attempt to recapture Athens, without success
- (June 14th) Confederate cruiser, C.S.S. Alabama destroyed by U.S.S. Kearsarge, off Cherbourg, France
- (July 10th-22nd) Rousseau’s Alabama Raid; Union Gen’l Lovell H. Rousseau [illustration] crosses the mountains into Alabama’s eastern counties, tapping the Montgomery and West Point Railroad at Loachapoka (18 July) and destroying much property on his way into Georgia
- (August 3rd) 1500 Union infantry land on Dauphin Island in a movement on Fort Gaines
- (August 5th) Union Admiral David G. Farragut forces passage into Mobile Bay, passes the guns of Forts Gaines and Morgan, and encounters the Confederate fleet in the Battle of Mobile Bay
- (August 8th) Fort Gaines surrenders, as does Fort Morgan following siege operations (23 August)
- (September) A faction in the Alabama House introduces resolutions seeking peace negotiations
- (September 24th) Gen’l Nathan B. Forrest captures 1900 Union infantry at Athens, in Limestone County
- (October 26th-29th) Gen’l John B. Hood begins his Franklin-Nashville Campaign by demonstrating against Decatur, but is unable to cross the Tennessee River
- (December 1st) Thomas Hill Watts enters his second term as governor of Alabama
- (March) A Union army of 32,200 men under Gen’l Edward R. S. Canby [illustration] marches from Fort Morgan to assault Confederate defenses on the eastern shore of Mobile Bay
- (March) A column of 13,200 Union soldiers advances from Pensacola towards Montgomery but turns left to reinforce the main column moving on Spanish Fort and Ft. Blakeley
- (March 22nd-April 2nd) Wilson’s Raid to Selma; Gen’l James H. Wilson [photograh], with 13,500 mounted troopers, advances from Chicasaw, Franklin County, harassed by Gen’l Nathan B. Forrest
- (April 1st) Battle of Ebenezer Church, twenty miles north of Selma
- (April 2nd) Selma is stormed by Wilson’s troops, and most of the garrison is captured
- (April 3rd) A Union brigade, under Gen’l John T. Croxton, is detached from Wilson’s column at Elyton [Birmingham] and moves to Tuscaloosa where it burns the University of Alabama buildings. Croxton was later beaten in a skirmish at Pleasant Hill
- (March 27th-April 8th) The Siege of Spanish Fort, defended by about 2800 men, with Batteries Huger and Tracy protecting the water approaches from the rear
- (April 8th) The garrison of Spanish Fort escapes to Mobile
- (April 11th) Batteries Huger and Tracy are evacuated safely
- (April 2nd-9th) Fort Blakely, defending Mobile and manned by about 3700 men, is besieged , and captured
- (April 12th) Mobile is evacuated by the Confederates and occupied by Union forces
- (April 12th)Gen’l Wilson advances to Montgomery and peaceably occupies it
- (May 4th) The Confederate Department of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana is surrendered by Gen’l Richard Taylor to Gen’l Edward R. S. Canby at Citronelle, ending active operations in Alabama
- (June 21st) Lewis Eliphalet Parsons is appointed Provisional Governor of Alabama and announces that 122,000 Alabamians had enlisted in Confederate service; at least one-quarter of them died
- (September 12th) Governor Parsons convenes a convention in Montgomery to “alter and amend” the state constitution to present a republican form of government and restore the State to its constitutional relations with the federal government
- (September 30th) The convention abolishes slavery, annuls the ordinance of secession, annuls all ordinances of 1861 which conflict with the Constitution of the United States, and adjourns sine die
- (December 13th) Robert Miller Patton becomes governor of the state
The 1st Alabama Artillery Battalion, Companies “A”-“F”, was recruited in Mobile, Montgomery, Selma, and Eufaula, part of the “Army of Alabama,” and it was organized about the 1st of February 1861, at Fort Morgan. In the spring, the command was transferred to the Confederate government as “regulars”. Stationed at Fort Morgan and its dependencies, the battalion attained a high degree of discipline, insomuch that Union Gen’l Granger pronounced it the most perfect body of either army. Detachments of it manned the heavy artillery at Forts Gaines and Powell and rendered effective service. During the terrific bombardment of Fort Morgan, August, 1864, the battalion, “moved by no weak fears,” handled the guns until they were all knocked out of position, losing 150 k and w of about 500 engaged. The men were taken to Elmira, New York, where fully half died of smallpox (officers were taken to Fort Warren.) A small detachment, not captured, continued the fight at Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely. A small number moved to Choctaw Bluff in March 1865 and were included in the surrender of the Dept. of Alabama, Mississippi, and East Louisiana.
Field and staff officers: Lt. Cols. Robert C. Forsyth (Mobile; resigned); James T. Gee (Dallas; captured, Fort Morgan); Majors S. S. Tucker (Vermont; died in service); James T. Gee (promoted); J. M. Cary (Barbour; captured, Fort Morgan).
Armaments: Co. “A”, two 6-lb. Smoothbores (on 31 Oct 1861)
The 2nd Alabama Artillery Battalion, Companies “A”-“F”, was formed at Mobile in January 1862, with five companies later reduced to three. It was attached to the Department of the Gulf, and after January, 1864, the Department of Alabama, Mississippi, and East Louisiana. The unit was stationed at or near Mobile throughout the war and participated in the conflicts at Forts Gaines and Morgan, Spanish Fort, and Fort Blakely. With 64 officers and men, it surrendered on 4 May 1865.
Field officer: Lt. Col. James H. Hallonquist.
Armaments: Co. “A”, four 6-lb. Smoothbores (between 28 Nov 1863 and 5 Jan 1864); four 12-lb. Napoleons (between 1 May 1864 and 21 Feb 1865); Co. “E”, two 3-in. Rifles and two 12-lb. Howitzers (on 6-7 April 1862); Co. “F”, four 12-lb. Napoleons (between 29 March 1864 and 16 Dec 1864)
This company, with officers and men from Mobile, was organized and mustered in on 17 October 1861 for artillery service. The battery remained in the defences of the city of Mobile until June 1863 when it was sent to Mississippi and placed in Featherston’s Brigade. It fought at Jackson with small loss and was then ordered to Dalton, GA, where it joined the army’s retreat. It was at Resaca and lost some horses. It proceeded to Selma to re-equip and then joined Gen’l Nathan Bedford Forrest as “flying artillery.” It fought at Rome, returned to Selma to aid in the defence of that city, but was there captured.
Officers: Capts. Stephen Charpentier (resigned); John M. Jenks; Lts. John M. Jenks (promoted); L. H. Goodman; William Lee; Samuel Miller.
Armaments: Four 6-lb. Smoothbores (between 28 November 1863 and 5 January 1864), and four 12-lb. Napoleons (between 1 May 1864 and 21 February 1865).
This command was organized at Mobile on 16 October 1861, with men and officers were from that city mustered in on the 31st. The battery remained in the defence of that city untill the spring of 1862 when it moved to Corinth. It was in the Kentucky Campaign losing lightly at Munfordville, and none at Perryville. It suffered severely at Murfreesboro, where it was in Manigault’s brigade. At Chickamauga, the battery was engaged without loss; but at Missionary Ridge it lost three guns, and half its force was captured. The other half were distributed in Cobb’s (KY) and Mayberry’s (TN) battery (January 1864), and served till the end.
Officer: Capt. David Waters (promoted); Lts. William Hamilton; Charles Watkins; Samuel Battle; James M. Muldon (resigned); and Turner
Gage’s Artillery Battery, Company “E”, 2nd Light Artillery BattalionGage’s Battery was organized at Mobile, AL on 10 October 1861 and remained there in the city defenses at Ft. Gaines until the spring of 1862. Sent to Corinth, MS, on 4 March 62, the unit then marched toward TN and fought at Shiloh (6-7 April) under Brig. Gen’l James R. Chalmers and suffered many casualties. It was reorganized, 28 April 1862, and was then stationed at Mobile until 12 April 1865. The Company was variously stationed at Ft. Morgan, Ft. Gaines, Spanish River Battery, Battery McIntosh, Hitchcock’s Press, Battery “B”, and Battery Gladden. At that time, the city was evacuated and on 4 May 1865, the small company surrendered with the Dept. of Alabama, Mississippi, and East Louisiana.
Commanding offiders: Capts. Charles P. Gage, James Hill, and James H. Hutchisson
Armaments: two 3-inch Rifles, and two 12-lb. Howitzer (as of 6-7 April 1862)
This company was organized at Tuscaloosa on 29 November 1861 and reported for duty at Mobile,125 strong. The battery was recruited from Fayette, Pickens, and Tuscaloosa counties. Stationed at Fort Gaines until, after Shiloh, the battery relieved Charles P. Gage’s at Tupelo, and were given six guns. The battery skirmished at Farmington, and in the Kentucky campaign fought at Perryville with small loss. At Chickamauga, there were several casualties, and the battery lost a gun. Its pieces moved down the road from Dalton to Atlanta, losing 5 k and 25 w in casualties. The battery’s loss was small around Atlanta; but having marched with the army into Tennessee, it was overwhelmed at Nashville, losing its guns, six men k, and 22 captured. Placed in Spanish Fort, they were under fire for two weeks, with some loss. Moving up toward Marion Station, Mississippi, the battery was surrendered with the Department of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana, at Citronelle, Alabama, on 4 May 1865.
Officers: Capt. Charles L. Lumsden; Lts. George Vaughan (made surgeon); H. H. Cribbs (resigned); G. H. Gargrove (wounded, Nashville); Ed Tarrant (resigned); A. C. Hargrove (wounded, Spanish Fort); John A. Caldwell (wounded, Spanish Fort)
Armaments: Six 6-lb Rifles (two of them Parrot Rifles) (as of 19 April 1862); four 12-lb. Napoleons (between 29 March and 16 Dec 1864)
Waddell’s Alabama Artillery Battery was organized in February 1862 by an order allowing up to 20 men to be taken from each company of the 6th Alabama Regiment. Equipped with eight guns, the battery was in the Kentucky Campaign. Sent to Mississippi with Gen’l Carter L. Stevenson’s Division, the battery was badly cut up and lost nearly all its guns at Baker’s Creek. It lost more men during the Siege of Vicksburg and was there captured when the fortress fell, 4 July 1863. It was paroled later and declared exchanged on 12 September 1863. The battery was increased to a battalion and designated as the 20th Light Artillery in October 1863. Company “A” was organized at Columbus, Georgia in November 1863 and ordered to Dalton. There it became a part of the Army of Tennessee for the campaigns of 1864. At Girard, while confronting Wilson, the guns and two-thirds of the men were captured. Company “B” was also organized at Columbus in November 1863 and sent to Dalton. It participated in the Atlanta Campaigns armed with two 6-lb. and two 12-lb Blakeleys. Its losses were not severe. Ordered to Columbus, the battery fought Union Gen’l James Wilson at Girard where the men were dispersed and the guns abandoned.
[There was also a Company “C”, the Arkansas Helena Artillery, organized at Helena, Arkansas in May 1861 and transferred east of the Mississippi River. After the Battle of Shiloh and the Kentucky Campaign, it was placed in the Army of Tennessee, participating from Murfreesboro to Atlanta, from Tennessee and North Carolina. Its commanders were Capts. J. H. Calvery; A. W. Clarkson; and Thomas J. Key.]
Officers: Major James Fleming Waddell (Russell); Capts. Winslow D. Emery (Montgomery; commanding Co. “A”); and Richard H. Bellamy (Russell; commanding Co. “B”)
Armaments: consisted of four 10-lb. Parrott guns (as of 29 March 1864).
This command was organized at Eufaula, 26 February 1862, and was composed of men from Barbour and adjoining counties, 262 rank and file. The battery was still unarmed as late as 10 April 1862. Later equipped with six guns, the battery joined the Army of Tennessee (T. J. Stanford’s and J. W. Eldridge’s Battalion of Artillery) and participated in its campaigns and operations until the end, losing 48 men k and w, and 36 by disease, during its service. It was sent to Mobile and attached to the Dept. of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana in January 1865 and was surrendered at Meridian, MS, in May 1865 with about 80 men.
Officers: Capts. John W. Clark (resigned); W. A. McTyer (resigned); McDonald Oliver (KIA, Atlanta); William J. McKenzie; Lts. W. A. McTyer (promoted); McDonald Oliver (promoted); William J. McKenzie (promoted); W. H. Woods; and F. M. Caldwell.
Armaments: four 3-in. Rifles (as of 29 March 1864)
Fowler’s (Phelan’s) Artillery Battery was organized on 28 December 1861, at Davis Ford, VA. It was composed chiefly of men who had served a year in Virginia as Co. “H”, Fifth Alabama Infantry, having volunteered with R. E. Rodes as captain. The company was the first organization that re-enlisted “for the war.” The battery was on duty at Mobile for about a year. Having joined the main army, at Tullahoma, the battery was part of Gen’l Edward C. Walthall’s Brigade at Chickamauga, and there lost 10 k, 18 w, and 16 horses. At Missionary Ridge, the battery had several wounded. Placed in Gen’l Benjamin F. Cheatham’s Division, the battery lost 6 k and 9 w. On the retreat from Dalton, the guns were served almost daily. Moving with Gen’l John Bell Hood into Tennessee, the battery was engaged at Franklin and Nashville, losing 8 k and w at the latter battle. The battery was thereafter stationed at Mobile until the close of the war, and surrendered with 130 men.
Officers: Capts. William H. Fowler (Tuscaloosa; transferred); John Phelan (Montgomery; wounded, Resaca); Lts. John Phelan (promoted); Robert O. Perrin (Greene; resigned); N. Venable (Tuscaloosa); William Dailey (Tuscaloosa; KIA, Resaca); A. P. Hinton (Perry); Samuel W. Reeves (Tuscaloosa)
Armaments: four 12-lb. Napoleons (between 4 Dec 1863-29 March 1864)
Garrity’s Artillery Battery [see, [Alabama] State Artillery Battery]
The Gid. Nelson Artillery was organized at Uniontown on 2 May 1862 with men from Dallas, Marengo, Perry, and Shelby counties, in the spring of 1862. After a short time at Columbus, MS, the battery went to Mobile where it remained nearly two years. After joining the Army of Mississippi (Army of Tennessee) in January 1864, the battery was engaged at Resaca, Cassville, Kennesaw, New Hope, and Peach Tree Creek, losing lightly in each, and was complimented on the field at the latter place by Gen’l Daniel H. Reynolds. At Jonesboro, the battery lost four k and several w. It was engaged in the further operations of the army and at Nashville lost several k and had its guns captured. Thereafter, it returned to Mobile in March of 1865, and the remainder surrendered at Meridian.
Officers: Capts. Joseph Selden (Perry); Charles W. Lovelace (Dallas; captured, Nashville); Lts. R. H. Jones (resigned); Murfree (resigned); Charles W. Lovelace (promoted); E. C. England (Marengo; relieved); L. W. Duggar (Marengo); C. C. Smoot (Shelby); W. M. Selden (Perry)
Armaments: four 20-lb. Parrotts, and four 12-lb. Howitzers (on 11 Jan 1864)
Hardaway’s (Hurt’s) Artillery Battery was organized on 1 June 1861 by Robert A. Hardaway who recruited in Macon, Russell, and Tallapoosa counties, and who provided it with tents, side-arms, camp equipage, etc., at his own private expense. It was mustered into Confederate service at Lynchburg, Virginia on 21 June 1861, and it was stationed at Manassas until March 1862. From that time, the battery was a part of the Army of Northern Virginia and Gen’l James Longstreet’s artillery. It was first placed in R. A. Hardaway’s and D. G. McIntosh’s Battalion of Artillery, ant the unit served at Seven Pines, Mechanicsville, 1st Cold Harbor, White Oak Swamp, Sharpsburg, Shepherdstown, Upperville, Port Royal, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Bristoe Station, Mine Run, The Wilderness, Spotsylvania, Hanover Junction, 2nd Cold Harbor, Dutch Gap, Deep Bottom, Fussell’s Mill, Fort Field, Fort Gilmer, Fort Harrison, Henrico Poorhouse, Darbytown Road, Appomattox, and in numerous other stubborn conflicts of lesser note. The battery contained 110 men in June, 1862; 71 were present for duty at Gettysburg; and 94 were present in April 1864. It surrendered with 2 officers and 81 men at Appomattox.
Officers: Capts. Robert A. Hardaway (Macon; promoted); William B. Hurt (Russell; wounded, Gettysburg; promoted); George Arch Ferrell (Russell); Lts. Williamm B. Hurt (promoted); John W. Tullis (Pike; wounded, Gettysburg, and captured; detached); G. A. Ferrell (promoted); Jesse H. Crenshaw (Russell); and John Andrew Jackson (Russell)
Armaments: two 3-inch Rifles, and one 2.75-inch Whitworth (as of 17 Sept 1862); one 8-inch Howitzer, two 3-inch Rifles, and one 12-lb Whitworth (as of 28 December 1864)
The Jeff. Davis Artillery Battery was organized in May 1861, at Selma, composed of men from Butler, Dallas, Lowndes, Marengo, and Perry counties. It was furnished with eight guns and went to Virginia the following month. At Manassas, it was attached to Jubal Early’s Brigade. The battery was engaged at Seven Pines and at 1st Cold Harbor, it lost 18 men and 28 horses k and w. As part of T. H. Carter’s Artillery Battalion, the battery fought at Boonsboro and then suffered severely at Shapsburg. It manned the crest at Fredericksburg and fought with Stonewall Jackson’s corps at Chancellorsville, with light loss. The battalion was also engaged in frequent skirmishes and battles soon afterwards, includingGettysburg, Orange Court House, the Bristoe and Mine Run campaigns, and The Wilderness. As Spotsylvania, the battery was charged and lost three guns; half the command was captured. They were not exchanged. The remainder of the command served with a battery in Carter’s Artillery until the surrender. The unit had contained 110 men in April, 1862. It surrendered 1 officer and 26 men.
Officers: Capts. Joseph T. Montgomery (Dallas; resigned); James W. Bondurant (Marengo; promoted gradually to colonel of artillery); William J. Reese (Montgomery; wounded, Bealton; captured, Spotsylvania); Lts. A. K. Shepard (Perry; resigned); C. W. Lovelace (Dallas; resigned); William Fitts (resigned); William J. Reese (resigned); Robert Walker (Dallas; resigned); James W. Bondurant (promoted); Robert Yeldell (Butler (resigned); H. P. Thomas (Bibb; resigned); D. E. Bates (Marengo; captured, Spotsylvania); John Mitchell (Dallas)
Armaments: consisted of two 3-inch Rifles and two 12-lb Howitzers (between 20 Aug 1862 and 24 September 18620; and four 3-in Rifles (as of 1-3 July 1863).
Ketchum’s (Garrity’s) Artillery Battery [see, [Alabama] State Artillery Battery]
McRae Light Artillery Battery [see, [2nd Light Artillery Battalion, Co. “A”]
This command was organized at Pine Level, in Montgomery County, March 1863. It was composed of men from that and adjoining counties. Attached to Gen’l James H. Clanton’s brigade, the battery was at Pollard and Mobile for some time, then in northeast Alabama and north Georgia. One section was engaged in a fight at Rome, and the battery fought at Girard, where the guns were captured. The surrender of the men soon followed.
Officers: Capts. Eliphat McWhorter; N. H. Clanton (Macon); Lts. R. J. Swearingen (Macon); Henry Goldthwaite (Montgomery); and Charles Howard (Macon)
Armaments: one 12-lb. Howitzer, and three 6-lb. Smoothbores (on 11 Jan 1864); one section armed with one 10-lb. Parrott, and one 12-lb. Howitzer (on 21 Feb 1865)
Marks Artillery Battery was organized at Montgomery on 1 March 1862, and the officers and men, nearly all from Montgomery County, were mustered in on 7 March. Ordered to Mobile, it soon after joined the Army of Tennessee. It marched into Kentucky and was engaged at Perryville with light loss. Two sections fought in the last day’s battle at Murfreesboro, losing a third of the men, two guns, and nearly every horse. Assigned to T. R. Hotchkiss’ Artillery Battaion, the battery fought at Dug Gap with light loss, but losses were serious at Chickamauga. The battery was engaged at Missionary Ridge without loss, and one section suffered severely at Ringgold Gap. The loss of men and horses at Resaca was considerable, and the battery was fully occupied on the retreat to Atlanta. In the battle of 22 July and at Jonesboro, the loss was quite severe. The guns of the battery were the first that opened at Franklin, but its loss there and at Nashville was comparatively light. Ordered to North Carolina, the battery reached Augusta and there surrendered in April, 1865.
Officers: Capts. Henry C. Semple (Montgomery; promoted); Richard W. Goldthwaite (Montgomery); Lts. Elmore F. Fitzpatrick (Montgomery; detached); John B. Scott (Montgomery; resigned); Richard W. Goldthwaite (Montgomery; promoted); E. Gl. McClellan (Montgomery; KIA, Resaca); Charles Dowd (Mobile; wounded, Resaca); Joseph Pollard (Montgomery; KIA, Murfreesboro); Derrill M. Hart (Montgomery); Henry Armstrong (Montgomery)
Armaments: four 12-lb. Napoleons (between 29 March 1864 and 1 April 1864)
This company was organized at Norfolk, VA, January 1862, by the conversion of the first Co. “G”, 3rd Alabama Infantry Regiment, to artillery service. The majority of the men were from Montgomery and had served a year in the infantry. Some months later, the battery was sent to North Carolina for garrison duty on the coast. It assisted in the capture of Plymouth with small loss, and blew up Fort Branch when the Confederate line at Petersburg was broken, and tried to join Gen’l Joseph E. Johnston. The battery disbanded at Ridgeway, NC, in April 1865.
Officers: Capts. W. G. Andrews (relieved); Edgar G. Lee (Montgomery); Lts. E. R. Spalding (resigned); E. J. Lee (promoted); J. E. Davis; William F. Williams; Sid. S. McWhorter.
Robertson’s or Dent’s Artillery Battery was organized at Pensacola, FL, on 21 December 1861, with men from Pollard and Eufaula, AL, and from Pensacola and Quincy, FL. They participated in the bombardment of Forts McRae and Pickens and were then ordered to Corinth, MS, taking part at Shiloh (2 k, 17 w), in the Kentucky Campaign, and at Murfreesboro (2 k, 23 w) and Chickamauga. It then served with the Army of Tennessee from Missionary Ridge (7 k, 21 w) to Nashville, closing the war at Mobile. In March 1864, the unit consised of 110 men, and when it surrendered on 4 May 1865, it contained fewer than 45.
Officers: Capts. Felix H. Robertson; Stouten H. Dent
Armaments: six 12-lb. Napoleons (on 19 May 1863); two 6-lb. Smoothbores, and two 12-lb. Napoleons (between 29 March 1864 and 4 April 1864)
The Alabama State Artillery Battery (also known as Ketchum’s-Garrity’s Artillery Battery) was organized at Mobile on 4 May 1861, and the officers and men were from that county. It went to Pensacola and remained there until briefly. It lost 7 k and w, and several horses at Shiloh. Attached to Gen’l Daniel Ruggles’ Brigade, it was engaged at Farmington without loss. Moving into Kentucky as part of Gen’l James Chalmers’ Brigade, its loss was light at Mumfordville. At Perryville and Wildcat Gap, the battery fought with few casualties. At Murfreesboro, the battery lost 27 men k and w, and 30 horses. The battery was more fortunate at Chickamauga, but it lost several men and two guns at Missionary Ridge. The battery was in Union Gen’l William T. Sherman’s way both by day and night as he moved on Atlanta, and it suffered considerably. It fought at Franklin and Nashville, with small loss, and it endured the siege of Spanish Fort with two men k. The battery, numbering about 80, surrendered at Meridian.
Officers: Capts. William H. Homer (resigned, 22 Dec 61); William H. Ketchum (resigned); James Garrity (wounded, Murfreesboro, Marietta); William H. Ketchum (resigned, 10 Dec 62); Lts. William H. Homer (promoted); David Bush (resigned, 61); John C. Yuille (resigned); John Slaughter (resigned, 22 Dec 61); James Garrity (promoted); David Bond (KIA, Jonesboro); Maynard A. Hassell (KIA, near Atlanta); Henry F. Carroll (died in service, 2 Feb 64); Jonathan Pressler; John W. Jackson.
Armaments: four 6-lb. Smoothbores and two 12-lb. Howitzers (on 6-7 April 1862); two 6-lb. Smoothbores and two 12-lb. Howitzers (on 19 May 1863); two 3-in. Rifles and two 10-lb. Parrots (between 29 March 1864 and 1 April 1864)
Tarrant’s Artillery Battery was organized at Pollard in June 1863 with men were from the western counties of Alabama. The battery remained at Pollard for some months until it joined the Army of Tennessee at Dalton where it served in W. C. Preston’s and D. Truehart’s Battalion of Artillery. The battery participated in the battles of Resaca, Cassville, Lost Mountain, New Hope Church, Kennesaw Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, and Atlanta, and suffered more or less in each. It then moved with Gen’l John Bell Hood towards Tennessee and was under fire at Decatur from the gunboats. At Nashville, one section of the battery was captured entire, after hard fighting, and so many men and horses killed in the other that the guns could not be drawn off. Ordered to Ft. Blakely, the men there manned eight heavy pieces, endured the perils of that siege, fired the last gun at the victor foe, and was there surrendered on 9 April 1865. They were exchanged at Vicksburg, Mississippi, on 28 April 1865 and were surrendered finally with the Dept. of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana at Citronelle, Alabama on 4 May 1865.
Officers: Edward Tarrant (Tuscaloosa; captured at Blakely); Lts. Seth Shepard (Perry; captured at Nashville); B. B. Hardwick (Tuscaloosa; wounded at Kennesaw, Nashville); E. W. Tarrant (Tuscaloosa; captured at Blakely).
Armaments: two 12-lb Howitzers and two 3-inch Rifles (as of 19 May 1864)
Waddell’s battery was organized in February 1862 by an order allowing men to be taken from each company of the Sixth Alabama. Equipped with eight guns, the battery was involved in the Kentucky Campaign. Sent to Mississippi with Gen’l Carter L. Stevenson’s Division, the battery was badly cut up and lost nearly all of its guns at Baker’s Creek. It lost quite a number during the siege of Vicksburg, and was there captured. Exchanged on 12 September 1863, the battery was increased to a battalion and designated the 20th Light Artillery Battalion in October, 1863.
Officers: Capts. James F. Waddell (Russell); Lts. W. D. Emery (Montgomery; wounded, Vicksburg); R. H. Bellamy (Russell); Alonzo O’Neal (Russell); A. H. Burch (Russell); Jefferson Bates (Russell); and Robert Harvey, all of (Russell)
Ward’s Artillery Battery was recruited from Madison County in the fall of 1862, and they mustered in at Huntsville on 10 October 1862. They served at Mobile until April 1864 and were then assigned to G. S. Storr’s Battalion of Artillery, Army of Tennessee, fighting at Kennesaw Mountain and in several battles around Atlanta. They were captured at Selma on 2 April 1865.
Officers: Capts. John J. Ward; Samuel R. Cruse
Armaments: four 12-lb. Napoleons (on 11 Jan 1864)
The Second Alabama Cavalry Regiment was organized at Montgomery on 1 May 1862. It proceeded to West Florida and operated there about ten months, engaging in several skirmishes. Ordered to north Mississippi, the regiment was placed with Brig. Gen’l Daniel Ruggles. It then lost 8 men in a skirmish at Mud Creek. It was then placed in Brig. Gen’l Samuel W. Ferguson’s Brigade and operated in the Tennessee Valley, taking part in numerous skirmishes. The 2nd fought Union Gen’l Benjamin H. Grierson at Okolona with a loss of about 70 men killed and wounded; then it harassed Union Gen’l William T. Sherman on his march to and from Mississippi. Joining Gen’l Joseph Wheeler, the 2nd performed arduous duty on the flank of the army in the Dalton-Atlanta Campaign, losing a number of men in the battle on the 22nd of July at Atlanta. Having accompanied Gen’l John Bell Hood to Rome, the 2nd then fell on Sherman’s rear and skirmished almost daily with some losses. The regiment tracked Sherman to Greensboro, NC, then escorted President Jefferson Davis to Georgia. At Forsyth, in that state, the regiment surrendered its arms, about 450 men.
Field and staff officers: Cols. Fountain Winston Hunter (Montgomery; relieved); Richard Gordon Earle (Calhoun; KIA, Kingston, GA, 14 May 1864); John N. Carpenter (Greene); Lt. Cols. James Cunningham (Monroe; resigned, 1863); John Porter West (Shelby; resigned, 2 Dec 1862); John N. Carpenter (promoted); Josiah James Pegues (Tuscaloosa; wounded, Nickajack); Majors Mathew Robinson Marks (Montgomery; relieved); John N. Carpenter (promoted); Josiah James Pegues (promoted); Richard W. Carter (Butler); Leroy Napier (temporary); and Adjutant James M. Bullock (Greene).
The Fourth Alabama Cavalry Battalion (Love’s) was made up of three companies, “A”, “B”, and “C”, organized from Alabama between August and September 1863, which went to Virginia in 1864. They were consolidated with the Phillips’ [GA] Legion, Wade Hampton’s Cavalry Battalion (May to 11 July 1864). Then they merged into the Jeff. Davis [MS] Cavalry Legion. They were involved in some hard fighting at The Wilderness, Spotsylvania Court House, North Anna, 2nd Cold Harbor, Trevilian Station, and the Petersburg Siege. From Pike County, Co. “A” (Capt. Andrew P. Love) became Co. “H” in the Jeff. Davis Legion; from Barbour County, Co. “B” (Capt. Bethune B. McKenzie) became Co. “I”; and also from Barbour County, Co. “C” (Capt. G. A. Roberts) became Co. “K”.
Officers: As above, Capts. Andrew P. Love (captured, Dinwiddie); Bethune B. McKenzie; and G. A. Roberts.
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The 4th Alabama Cavalry Regiment (Roddey’s) was formed at Tuscumbia in October, 1862, and moved to middle Tennessee where it wintered. Recruits were from Franklin, Lauderdale, Lawrence, and Walker counties. During the early spring, 1863, the regiment was sent to the Tennessee River Valley in Northern Alabama, assigned to General Phillip Dale Roddey’s Brigade where it took an active part in raiding and attacking the Federals, including meeting Union Gen’l Grenville Dodge’s advance below Tuscumbia, and in helping to thwart Union Col. Abel D. Streight’s Raid into Alabama. The regiment was publicly commended in April, 1863, by Gen’l Braxton Bragg for its good discipline and order. In April, 1864, the regiment was transferred to the Dept. of Alabama, Mississippi, and East Louisiana. After fighting at Brice’s Cross Roads [also called Tishomingo Creek] with heavy losses, it saw action in various conflicts from Montevallo to Selma, including the defense against Union Gen’l James Wilson’s Raid. At Selma, on 2 April 1865, most of the unit was captured. The remaining part surrendered at Pond Spring. The regiment’s first colonel, Philip Dale Roddy, who raised an independent cavalry company before he commanded the 4th AL Cavalry, was made a brigadier early in the war. The regiment was commanded for the great part of the war by Col. William A. Johnson
Field officers: Cols. Phillip Dale Roddey (Lawrence; promoted); William Arthur Johnson (Lauderdale; wounded, Pulaski); Lt. Col. Francis Marion Windes; Majors Richard W. Johnson (Lauderdale; wounded, near Florence; KIA, near Moulton); John E. Newsom; and Adjutants Francis Marion Windes (promoted); E. S. Chisholm.
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The 5th Alabama Cavalry Regiment was organized at Tuscumbia in December, 1862, by increasing the 22nd Alabama Cavalry Battalion to a regiment, and it was brigaded under Gen’l Philip Dale Roddy. The regiment was recruited in Fayette, Franklin, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Marion, Morgan, and Tuscaloosa counties. It moved into East Tennessee shortly after and skirmished at Chapel Hill. It captured a wagon train at Hamburg; took 60 prisoners and a train at Hunt’s Mill, in Jackson; blocked the railroad in the rear of Union Gen’l William S. Rosecrans; captured 130 prisoners at Madison Station; fought Gen’l Eli Long at Moulton; stampeded a regiment at Oakville; and was with Gen’l Nathan Bedford Forrest on his Pulaski Raid, with light loss. The 5th also skirmished with Union Gen’l James B. Steedman when he marched into the Tennessee Valley, and it was in front of Union Gen’l James Wilson’s Corps from Montevallo to Selma. The regiment took part in the defence of Selma and was mostly captured there. The remainder surrendered at Danville, in Morgan County, on 6 May 1865. During its career, the 5th captured at least 450 enemy soldiers. The regiment was reliably commanded by Col. Josiah Patterson until war’s end.
Field officers: Col. Josiah Patterson (Morgan; captured, Selma); Lt. Cols. James Monroe Warren (captured, LaGrange; resigned); R. F. Gibson (Lawrence; resigned); Jabez Lamar Monroe Curry; William Wren (MS); Majors R. F. Gibson (Lawrence; resigned); William Wren (MS); and Adjutants William L. McGaughy; and John K. Clarke.
The 6th Alabama Cavalry was organized near Pine Level, early in 1863, as part of Brig. Gen’l James H. Clanton’s brigade. Recruits were gathered from Barour, Coffee, Coosa, Henry, Macon, Montgomery, Pike, and Tallapoosa counties. It was first engaged near Pollard with a column of the enemy that moved out from Pensacola. Ordered then to North Alabama, the 6th was concerned in several skirmishes near Decatur, with small loss. During the Atlanta-Dalton campaign, the regiment served for several weeks as part of Brig. Gen’l Samuel W. Ferguson’s and Brig. Gen’l Frank C. Armstrong’s brigades, losing quite a number. A portion of the regiment resisted Maj. Gen’l Lovel H. Rousseau at Ten Islands, losing a number killed and captured. Transferred to West Florida, the 6th fought Maj. Gen’l Frederick Steele’s column at Bluff Springs, under orders from Col Armstead, and its loss was severe, especially in prisoners. The remnant fought Maj. Gen’l James H. Wilson’s column, and laid down their arms at Gainesville, fewer than 200 men.
Field officers: Col. Charles H. Colvin, Lt. Col. Washington T. Lary (captured at Ten Islands); Major Eliphalet Ariel McWhorter (captured at Ten Islands, Bluff Springs); and Adjutant Joseph A. Robertson.
The 7th Alabama Cavalry regiment was organized at Newbern, 22 July 1863, raised as part of the brigade of Gen’l James H. Clanton. Recruits came from Greene, Montgomery, Pickens, Randolph, and Shelby counties. Ordered to Pollard, the regiment remained in that vicinity for nearly a year. In the fall of 1864, the 7th reported to Gen’l Nathan Bedford Forrest at Corinth, Mississippi and was reassigned to Rucker’s Brigade. It took part in the raid on Johnsonville and was engaged in the fighting as Gen’l John Bell Hood moved up to Nashville. The 7th also bore the brunt of the night attack of the enemy at Brentwood, suffering severely in killed and wounded. During Hood’s retreat, the regiment fought daily and nightly, repelling the repeated assaults of the enemy’s swarm of cavalry. When the 7th reached Corinth, only 64 rank and file (effectives) were left of the 350 with which it began the campaign. After recruiting a few weeks, the regiment joined Gen’l Abraham Buford, at Montevallo, 300 strong. Ordered to West Florida, the 7th reached Greenville, then turned and confronted Union Gen’l James Wilson’s Corps from Benton to Girard, fighting and obstructing his march. At Girard, the regiment was in the line and took part in the last fighting of the great war. It moved by way of Dadeville and Wetumka, and it surrendered at Gainesville, 14 May 1865.
Field and staff officers: Col. Joseph Hodgson (Montgomery); Lt. Cols. Henry J. Livingston (Autauga; resigned); Turner Clanton (Montgomery); Majors Turner Clanton (promoted); Francis C. Randolph (Montgomery); and Adjutant William t. Charles (Montgomery; captured, and escaped).
The 8th Alabama Cavalry Regiment was organized 26 April 1864, at Newbern, by adding a company to the nine of Hatch’s 9th Cavalry Battalion, Local Defense Troops, which had entered the service the previous winter. Recruits were from Choctaw, Dallas, Fayette, Greene, Marengo, Sumter, and Tuscaloosa counties. Ordered at once to Blue Mountain, the regiment was under Gen’l Gideon Pillow, assigned to C. G. Armistead’s Brigade. Moving into north Georgia, the regiment was in the desperate encounter at LaFayette (24 June 1864), with a loss of 30 k and w,and about 75 prisoners. Shortly after, the 8th fought at Rome, losing about 20 men k and w. It was ordered to west Florida soon after, and it was in front of Union Gen’l Frederick Steele as he moved on Pollard. The 8th surrendered at Gainesville, 4 May 1865, after some further operations of minor importance.
Field and staff officers: Col. Elias P. Ball (Montgomery); Lt. Col. Lemuel D. Hatch (Montgomery; wounded, LaFayette, and captured); Majors William T. Poe; Richard H. Redwood (Mobile; KIA, LaFayette); and Adjutant J. Catlin Cade (Marengo). According to Willis Brewer, “Lemuel D. Hatch of Greene was entitled to the colonelcy of this regiment, having recruited it by authority. But Gen. Polk appointed Charles P. Ball of Montgomery colonel, L. D. Hatch leiutenant colonel, and Richard H. Redwood of Mobile major. Pending a discussion of the question, Col. Hatch was wounded and captured (and Major Redwood killed) at LaFayette, and Colonel Ball continued in command, though Hatch’s commission as colonel was issued.”
The 8th Alabama Cavalry was organized at Gadsden during the spring of 1864 by increasing the strength of Livingston’s Cavalry Battalion. In the summer, it reported to and was brigaded under Gen’l Gideon Pillow at Blue Mountain, strength about 250 men. It operated in the vicinity of the Army of Tennessee while it lay at Dalton, and it was with Gen’l Pillow for about eight months. Transferred to Gen’l James H. Clanton’s Brigade in the Dept. of Alabama, Mississippi, and East Louisiana, the 8th fought under that officer at Ten Islands, with some losses. It was soon after sent to west Florida where it made head against Union Gen’l Frederick Steele’s column at Bluff Spring, losing a number. By February of 1865, the regiment had grown to about 600 men, but after skirmishing in Alabama and resisting Union Gen’l James H. Wilson’s Corps, on 4 May 1865, there were but a few to surrender at Gainesville.
Field and staff officers: Col. Henry J. Livingston (Autauga); Lt. Col. Thomas L. Faulkner (Autauga); Major Sidney A. Moses (Russell); and Aujutant Charles E. Stewart (Dallas; transferred to line).
The Tenth Alabama Cavalry was organized in the winter, 1863-1864, to constitute part of General Philip Dale Roddey’s command. Richard O. Pickett of Lauderdale was the colonel, and the men were from the northern Alabama counties (across the Tennessee River). They were first stationed at Mount Hope and were then assigned to Roddey in the District of North Alabama, Department of Alabama, Mississippi, and East Louisiana. The services of the regiment were confined in a great measure to outpost operations in the Tennessee valley, though it participated in the Pulaski raid, and other encounters and forays. They disbanded in the spring of 1865.
Field officers: Col. Richard Orrick Pickett; Lt. Col. John R. Powell; Major W. P. Wrenn; and Adjutant E. T. Johnson.
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Also known as the 10th Alabama (Burtwell’s) Cavalry Regiment. The nucleus of this regiment was a command that served for some time under Col. Jeffrey E. Forrest, Forrest’s Cavalry Regiment, also called the 4th Cavalry Regiment. The command was increased to a regiment, and re-organized by transferring 4 Tennessee companies to the 18th Tennessee Cavalry and by sending 5 Alabama companies to Warren’s and Moreland’s cavalry battalions. The 11th Alabama Cavalry Regiment was organized by the consolidation of Warren’s and William’s cavalry battalions on 14 January 1865, comprising men from Franklin, Lauderdale, Limestone, and Morgan counties. It was with Forrest in the attack on Athens and Sulphur Trestle, and in the fight at Pulaski, losing very severely in casualties on the expedition. The regiment rendered effective service to Gen. John Bell Hood. It was part of Philip Dale Roddy’s force at Montevallo, and was in front of Union Gen’l James Wilson’s column to Selma; At the assault on the works there, the Eleventh was in the trenches, and nearly all its men retired therefrom, as the part of the line held by them was not assailed. The regiment laid down its arms at Decatur in May, 1865.
Field and staff officers: Col. John Robertson Bedford Burtwell (Lauderdale); Lt. Col. John F. Doan (MS); Major Melville W. Sale; and Adjutant David H. Halsey (Franklin)
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The 12th Alabama Cavalry Battalion, Partisan Rangers, was organized with 4 companies before 12 September 1862 and operated in East Tennessee for some months. It was then assigned to the 1st Alabama Cavalry Regiment in November 1862 while the army lay at Murfreesboro. It then fought at Murfreesboro and Chickamauga, and in Gen’l James Longstreet’s East Tennessee Campaign. The Battalion was involved in several battles beginning with the Atlanta Campaign (May through September, 1864), including the fights at Rome where one company lost 20 casualties in defending a bridge, Atlanta (25 casualties), Campbellton (45 casualties), and Sunshine Church. It was also in the Savannah Campaign (November-December 1864), and the Carolinas Campaign (February-April 1865). It was reconstituted with the original 4 companies before 30 June 1864. Companies “E”, “F”, and “G” were assigned to the unit in 1864, and it was increased to a regiment and designated the 12th Alabama Cavalry in January 1865.
Field officers: Col. Warren Stone Reese; Lt. Cols. William H. Hundley (Madison); Marcellus Pointer; Majors William H. Hundley (promoted); Albert Gallatin Bennett (St. Clair; resigned, 5 Jan 1863); Augustus John Ingram; and Adjutant W. W. Whorton.
The nucleus of the 12th Alabama Cavalry Regiment (with men recruited from Cherokee, De Kalb, Etowah, Jackson, Jefferson, Marshall, and St. Clair counties) was a battalion recruited by Lt. Col. William H. Hundley of Madison, and Major Albert G. Bennett of St. Clair. This battalion operated in East Tennessee for some months, and it was consolidated with the 1st Alabama while the army lay at Murfreesboro. It fought thus at Murfreesboro and Chickamauga, and through Gen’l James Longstreet’s East Tennessee Campaign. Soon after the latter operations, four companies were added, and the regiment thus formed took the name of the 12th Alabama. Attached to Hagan’s Brigade, the regiment took part in the retrograde movement from Dalton, and was engaged in numerous encounters. One of its companies lost 20 k and w while defending a bridge near Rome. At Atlanta, 22 July 1864, Gen’l Joseph Wheeler complimented the regiment on the field, and it lost 25 or 30 men in a hilt to hilt melee with Union Gen’l Stoneman’s raiders. At Campbellsville, the 12th repulsed Brownlow’s Brigade, losing 45 men. At Averysboro and the attack on Kilpatrick, and other places, the regiment fought until the end. It disbanded the night before the surrender — about 125 present — on 25 April 1865.
Field and staff officers: Col. Warren Stone Reese (Montgomery); Lt. Cols. William H. Hundley; Marcellus Pointer (MS; wounded); Majors Albert Gallatin Bennett (resigned, 5 Jan 1863); Augustus John Ingram (Blount; accidentally disabled); and Adjutant R. B. Whorton (resigned, 11 Oct 1862).
The 13th Battalion had been organized with six companies on 28 August 1862. It was assigned to the Dept. of Mississippi and East Louisiana (December 1862-June 1863) and first served as scouts and pickets. With about 250 men, it fought at the battle of King’s Creek under Gen’l Daniel Ruggles. It was consolidated with the 15th Battalion on 8 June 1863 to form the 56th Regiment, Partisan Rangers.
Field officer: Major William A. Hewlett.
The 15th Alabama Cavalry Battalion had been organized with five companies on 25 August 1862. It served in Gen’l Cumming’s Brigade at Mobile, then moved to Mississippi with about 350 effectives and fought at King’s Creek under Gen’l Daniel Ruggles. It was consolidated with the 13th Battalion on 8 June 1863 to form the 56th Regiment, Partisan Rangers.
Field officer: Major William Boyles.
The 24th Alabama Cavalry Battalion was organized on 31 December 1863, with three companies. It was chiefly composed of youths and served in Gen’l Joseph Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps, assigned to Philip Dale Roddey’s, Moses Wright Hannon’s, and then in January, 1865, to James Hagan’s Brigade. The battalion was involved in the Atlanta Campaign at Resaca and the siege of the city. They continued to harass the Union forces in Georgia and the Carolinas, and they surrendered with the Army of Tennessee at Durham Station, Orange County, North Carolina, 26 April 1865..
Field and staff officers: Major Robert B. Snodgrass and Adjutant C. Wickham Gue
[By Charles S. Rice, Huntsville, AL]
Although the 25th Alabama Cavalry Battalion was not formed until very late in the war, its origins go back to the summer of 1862, when Lemuel Green Mead of Jackson County resigned as captain of Co. “C”, 50th Alabama Infantry Regiment and was recommissioned a cavalry captain with orders to operate behind enemy lines in North Alabama and Tennessee. Mead quickly recruited a company of partisan rangers, but the Union withdrawal in September 1862 limited his activities. However, the Union Army returned to North Alabama in mid-1863, and Mead’s operations began again in earnest. Mead’s forces so rapidly increased that on 18 January 1864 he was authorized to expand his company into a cavalry battalion. Mead’s men constantly harassed the Union invaders, attacked the railroad, captured wagon trains and forage parties, and forced the Union Army to keep several regiments tied down to defend against them. Mead’s cavalry cooperated with Col. Alfred A. Russell’s 4th Alabama Cavalry Regiment in November and December 1864, in support of Gen’l John Bell Hood’s Nashville campaign. Mead’s most famous independent operation was the seizure of the Union post at Paint Rock Bridge on 31 Dec 1864, where he captured Co. “G”, 18th Wisconsin Infantry, and a Napoleon howitzer. A letter from Col. Russell (17 Jan 1865) indicates that Gen’l Nathan B. Forrest wanted Mead’s battalion attached to his own command, which would have been done “but for the contrary influence of some of the staff officers of Brigadier General [Philip D.] Roddey and S. D. Cabaniss, inspector of conscription.” On 11 March 1865, Lemuel Mead was promoted to colonel and authorized to reform his men into a regiment. Companies “A”, “C”, “E”, “F”, and “G”of Mead’s Battalion became Companies “A”, “B”, “C”, “D”, and “E” of the 25th Alabama Cavalry Battalion. Captain Milus E. “Bushwhacker” Johnston, who had been acting as major, was promoted to lieutenant colonel and placed in command. At the same time, Mead’s Tennessee companies became the 27th Tennessee Cavalry Battalion. Mead was recommended by Gen’l John B. Gordon for temporary promotion to brigadier general, but the war ended before that occured. Johnston’s 25th Alabama Battalion surrendered at Huntsville on 11 May 1865. Col. Mead held out on Brindley Mountain for a few weeks longer before finally disbanding the remainder of his men.
Field officers: Col. Lemuel Green Mead; Lt. Col. Milus E. “Bushwhacker” Johnston; and Major Eugene C. Gordon.
The 53rd Alabama Cavalry Regiment, Partisan Rangers, was organized by increasing the 1st Cavalry Battalion to regimental size at Montgomery on 5 November 1862. Recruits were from Autauga, Coffee, Coosa, Dale, Dallas, Lauderdale, Lowndes, Macon, Monroe, Montgomery, Pike, Tallapoosa and Wilcox counties. It proceeded in a few weeks to Mississippi. In moving from Columbus to Decatur, in Lawrence, a portion of the regiment was there equipped and proceeded to join Gen’l Earl Van Dorn. This battalion was in the fighting at Thompson’s Station, and at Brentwood. The regiment was engaged in the fight with Union Gen’l Grenville Dodge at Town Creek and in the pursuit of Union Col. Abel Streight. Soon after, the 53rd joined the main army at Dalton as part of Gen’l Moses W. Hannon’s Brigade, Gen’l John Kelly’s Division. It operated on the right of the army as it fell back towards Atlanta and was engaged in constant duty. When Union Gen’l William T. Sherman reached Atlanta, the 53rd was the principal force engaged in the daring raid in his rear, whereby a valuable train was destroyed. It was then at the heels of Sherman as he devastated Georgia and the Carolinas, and it took part in the last operations of the war in that quarter. It surrendered a small number with Gen’l Joseph E. Johnston at Durham Station, Orange County, NC, on 26 April 1865.
Field and staff officers: Col. Moses Wright Hannon (Montgomery; promoted); Lt. Col. John F. Gaines (Montgomery; wounded, Waynesboro); Major Thomas Farewell Jenkins (Wilcox; captured, near Florence); and Adjutants R. B. Snodgrass (Montgomery; wounded three times; transferred); George P. Furhman; and John T. Tannehill (Montgomery).
It was assigned to (1) the District of the Gulf, Dept. #2 (Dec 1862); to Armstrong’s Brigade, Jackson’s Division, Van Dorn’s Cavalry Corps, Department of MS and East LA (Feb 63) with a total of 517 effectives; (2) to Armstrong’s Brigade, Van Dorn’s Division, Army of Tennessee (Feb-March 63); (3) to Armstrong’s Brig, Jackson’s Division, Van Dorn’s Cavalry Corps, Army of TN (March 63); (4) to District of Northern AL, Dept #2 (July-Aug 63); (5) to Roddey’s Brigade, Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps, Army of TN (Aug 63-April 64); (6) to M. W. Hannon’s Brigade, Humes’ Division, Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps, Army of TN (April-Nov 64); (7) to Hannon’s Brigade, Humes’ Division, Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps, Department of SC, GA, and FL (Nov 64-Jan 65); (8) to Hannon’s Brigade, Allen’s Division, Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps, Hampton’s Cavalry Command (Feb-April 65); and (9) to Hagan’s Brigade, Allen’s Division, Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps, Hampton’s Cavalry Command, Army of TN (April 65).
The regiment fought in the following battles: Cherokee Station and Little Bear Creek, AL (12 Dec 62); Thompson’s Station (5 March 63); Florence, AL (25 March 63); Brentwood (25 March 63); Town Creek (April 63); Streight’s Raid (April-May 63); Chickamauga (19-20 Sept 63); Atlanta Campaign (May-Sept 64); Resaca (14-15 May 64); Atlanta Siege (July-Sept 64); Jonesboro (31 Aug-1 Sept 64); Carolinas Campaign (Feb-April 65)
The 56th Alabama Cavalry Regiment, Partisan Rangers, was made up of two battalions (13th and 15th), commanded by Majors William Boyles (15th Battalion) and William A. Hewlett (13th Battalion)and which had been in service several months. The men were recruited from the counties of Autauga, Butler, Mobile, Montgomery, and Walker. Thus organized in the summer of 1863, the 56th operated in north Mississippi for some time under Gen’l Daniel Ruggles. It was there brigaded under Gen’l Samuel W. Ferguson and sent to north Georgia. It served on the flank of the army during the Dalton-Atlanta campaign, and it saw arduous duty. The regiment moved with Gen’l John Bell Hood to the Tennessee, then it turned and harassed Union Gen’l William T. Sherman. It was in the trenches of Savannah and operated near Augusta. It moved into the Carolinas and was surrendered at Greensboro, 26 April 1865, about 150 strong.
Field and staff officers: Col. William Boyles (Mobile); Lt. Cols. William A. Hewlett (Walker; resigned, 16 Feb 1864); Arthur Warren Debardelaben (Autauga; resigned, 13 June 1864); and William F. Martin (Mobile); Majors Arthur Warren Debardelaben (promoted); William F. Martin (promoted); Thomas D. Hall (Augauga); and Adjutant Augustine I. Sykes; and David H. Boyles.
Major Joseph Barbiere’s Cavalry Battalion was organized in 1864 from several independent companies which had themselves been created as supporting forces for the Conscript Reserves. The battalion served principally in central Alabama during the fall and winter, 1864-1865, and it was first assigned (1 Nov 64) to Armistead’s Cavalry Brigade, District of Central Alabama, until January 1865. The unit was headquartered at Wilsonville, AL (Feb 65) and was reported as serving with the Alabama Reserves with six companies (“A”-“F”). It was assigned to, and included in the surrender of the Department of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana by Lt. Gen’l Richard Taylor at Citronelle, AL, on 4 May 1865.
Barbiere’s Cavalry Battalion consisted of Companies “A”-“E” (probably Capt. John C. Brown’s, Capt. J. M. Clifton’s, Capt. Dawson’s, Capt. Thomas J. Goldsby’s, and and Capt. Thomas K. Truss’ companies), “F” (Capt. Andrew W. Bowie’s), and “G” (Capt. P. L. Griffitts)
Forrest’s Alabama Cavalry [4th] RegimentForrest’s Cavalry Regiment, also known as the 4th Alabama Cavalry Regiment, was organized with Julian’s Cavalry Battalion as a nucleus on the 1st of June 1863. It was broken up on 11 July 1864 when four Tennessee companies were transferred to the 18th Tennessee Cavalry Regiment; four Alabama companies transferred to Warren’s Cavalry Battalion; and one Alabama Company transferred to Moreland’s Cavalry Battalion (Fancher’s Company, subsequently Co. “E”, Moreland’s Regiment).
Officers: Col. Jeffrey E. Forrest; Lt. Col. Dew Moore Wisdom; Adj. D. H. Halsey.
Originally a cavalry squadron of just two companies organized on 21 January 1863, but increased to a battalion of five companies on 26 April 1864. Company commanders included Capts. John D. Morrison (Co. “A”), W. P. Barnes (Co. “B”), William May (Co. “C”), Lewis V. Harrell (Co. “E”), and Henry Brooks (Co. “D”). The battalion served in central Alabama and Georgia. It was assigned to Armistead’s Cavalry Brigade and participated in the battles of Lafayette (24 June 1864; 1 killed and 5 wounded) and Mobile (17 March-12 April 1865). There were 104 men present for duty on 1 September 1864. The battalion surrendered with the Dept. of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana at Citronelle, AL, 4 May 1865.
Field and staff officers: Majors Thomas Hall Lewis (KIA, La Fayette, GA); William Virgil Harrell; and Adjutant Green W. Lee
Mead’s Cavalry Regiment, or Mead’s Partisan Rangers, was initially a single cavalry company under the command of Capt. Lemuel Green Mead. It operated effectively as early as the summer of 1862. Capt. Mead later raised several other cavalry companies behind enemy lines in northern Alabama and Tennessee during 1864. These were arranged as battalions, but several companies failed to complete their organization. Of these, the 5 Alabama companies were transferred to the 25th AL Cavalry Battalion under the command of Major Milus E. Johnston, and the 6 Tennessee companies were transferred to the 27th TN Cavalry Battalion on 3 March 1865.
According to the Official Records (v.XVI, pt. 2), Mead’s company was ordered (15 August 1862) to operate in north Alabama and Tennessee, reporting to the nearest Confederate commander. General Braxton Bragg’s order, dated Chattanooga, TN, 26 August 1862 announced the following cavalry assignments: Crawford’s, Mead’s and Allen’s regiment, commanded by Colonel Wheeler, to left wing of army of the Mississippi, reporting to Major-General Hardee. The command is mentioned by Union Gen’l R. W. Johnson, Pulaski, TN, as Mead’s Battalion. The command is also called by Union Col. W. J. Clift, at Fayetteville, TN, “the most reckless and daring in the country.” Finally, Special Orders No.52, Richmond, VA, 2 March 1865 dictates that “the following companies [of] Alabama cavalry raised within the enemy’s lines by Capt. L. G. Mead, under authority of the War Department, are hereby organized into a battalion, to be known as the Twenty-fifth battalion, Alabama cavalry: [composed of] Capt. M. E. Johnston’s, Capt. F. E. Cotton’s, Capt. D. C. Nelson’s, Capt. R. L. Welch’s, Capt. W. M. Campbell’s and Capt. John Cobb’s [companies].”
Moreland’s Cavalry Battalion was organized with seven companies on 1 August 1863. Additional companies were added on 30 January (Co. “I”) and 1 February 1864 (Co. “H”), and the battalion was organized into a regiment sometime before 10 June 1864. As a cavalry regiment attached to Johnson’s and Roddey’s Brigades, Moreland’s fought against the Sturgis Mississippi Expedition (1-13 June 1864) and took part in battles at Brice’s Crossroads (10 June 1864), Tupelo (14 July 1864) and against Wilson’s Raid (22-24 March 1865). They were surrendered with the Dept. of Alabama, Mississippi, and East Louisiana, at Citronelle, AL, on 4 May 1865.
Field and Staff Officers: Col. M. D. Moreland; Major J. N. George; Adjutant John A. Cathey.
Echols’ Company [“Swanson Guards”], Alabama Conscripts
The 1st Alabama Conscript Regiment was formed in April 1862 for six months. It was stationed at Camp Watts, near Notasulga, AL, until the end of the year. It was commanded by Major William G. Swanson and consisted of ten companies. Echols’ company, the Swanson Guards, was formed the following year from attachments of the 1st Alabama Conscripts. It was commanded by 1st Lt. John H. Echols and stationed originally at Montgomery between April and August, 1863. The company was transferred to Fort Morgan that fall.
Officers: 1st Lts. John H. Echols; Edward R. Spalding; 2nd Lts. Edward P. Hendree (resigned, 26 Sept 63); Sylvanus T. Shaw; Fitzpatrick M. Trannim; Robert A. Peterson (transferred, 30 July 63); and John H. Alexander
The 1st Alabama Infantry regiment was the first to be organized under an act of the State legislature authorizing the enlistment of troops for 12 months. The companies rendezvoused at Pensacola in February and March 1861, and about the 1st of April organized and elected regimental officers. The men were recruited from Barbour, Lowndes, Macon, Pike, Talladega, Tallapoosa, and Wilcox counties. Transferred to the army of the Confederate States soon after, it remained on duty at Pensacola for a year, occupied chiefly in manning the batteries and taking part in bombardments on 23 Nov 61 and 1 Jan 1862. A detachment was in the night fight on Santa Rosa Island. As the oldest regiment in Confederate service, it was the first called on to reenlist for the war, at the end of the first year, and seven of the companies did so. Ordered to Tennessee, the regiment, 1000 strong, reached Island No. 10 on 12 March 1862, and it joined Gen’l Johnston at Alatoona. In Gen’l James Cantey’s Brigade, it fought at New Hope Church and was afterwards transferred to Gen’l William Quarles’ Brigade in which it served until war’s end. It participated at Kenesaw Mountain, lost considerably at Peach Tree Creek. In the assault against enemy lines at Atlanta, 28 July, the regiment won fresh renown but lost half its strength. They moved with Gen’l John Bell Hood into Tennessee and lost heavily at Franklin and Nashville. Transferred to North Carolina, they fought at Averysboro and Bentonville, and about 100 men surrendered at Goldsboro. Upwards of 3000 names were on the rolls at different times during the war, including those companies that did not re-enlist.
Field officers: Cols. Henry D. Clayton (until reorganization); Isaiah G. W. Steedman (captured at Island No. 10 and Port Hudson); Lt. Cols. I. G. W. Steedman (promoted); Michael B. Locke (wounded, captured at Port Hudson); Majors Jere N. Williams (until reorganization), Samuel L. Knox (captured at Island No. 10 and Port Hudson, but escaped from the latter; wounded at Atlanta; KIA at Franklin while commanding regiment); and Adjutants S. H. Dent (resigned), Samuel D. Steedman (captured at Island No. 10 and Port Hudson).
- Partial Muster roll: (via email)
- Flag [Co. “C-G”, Perote Guards] [Co. “I-K”, description only (no photograph)]
The Second Alabama Infantry Regiment (the “Magnolia Regiment”) was composed of companies raised in Calhoun, Clarke, Franklin, Jackson, Mobile, Monroe, and Pickens counties, which flocked to the seaboard at the first call of the State and which enlisted for one year. They organized at Fort Morgan in April, 1861, and remained in garrison there until March 1862, serving as infantry and manning the heavy artillery. Ordered to Tennessee, the term of service expired at Fort Pillow and the regiment was disbanded. Two or three companies joined other organizations almost intact, but most of the men distributed themselves among new regiments.
Field and staff officers: Col. Hary Maury (Mobile); Lt. Col. Hal C. Bradford (Jackson); Majors Phillander Morgan (Talladega; resigned); Daniel P. Forney (Calhoun); and Adjutant J. B. McClung (Madison).
- Flag [Co. “C”, notes, photograph]
The 3rd Alabama Infantry Reserves Regiment was formed by the consolidation on 16 August 1864 of independent companies which were mustered in between 15 April and 27 July 1864. Members of the unit were very young men,taken from Shelby, Talladega, Wedowee, Tuscaloosa County, Selma, and Columbiana. An election for field officers was held at Selma on 5 Aug 1864, later set aside, where Major W. D. Bulger claimed command. However, officers were later appointed by Maj. Gen’l Jones Withers. Following the organization of the regiment at Selma, it was sent to Mobile on board the steamer Coquette. They were first involved in the defenses of Mobile, but they did not participate in any fighting. In February 1865, the unit was ordered back to Selma where six companies were assigned to guard duty at Cahaba, a POW camp. The following month, it was reported to be at Montgomery, approximately 300 strong. As a part of the Department of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana, they were surrendered at Citronelle, AL, on 4 May 1865, by Lt. Gen’l Richard Taylor, although some of the regiment had been transferred in the mean time to Co. “I” of the 63rd AL Infantry, itself formerly the 2nd Infantry Regiment, Alabama Reserves.
Field and Staff Officers: Col. William McLin Brooks (resigned, 24 Jan 1865); Lt. Col. William Douglass Bulger; Major Whitfield Walker; Asst. Surgeons J. R. Coffman (relieved) and John R. Little; Ass’t Quartermaster Joseph D. Neeley; and Adjutant F. M. Eckford.
The 3rd Alabama Infantry Reserves Battalion was organized in August of 1864 and assigned to the District of the Gulf, Dept. of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana, in first Liddell’s, then Withers’, and finally Clanton’s Brigade. The battalion was consolidated with the 4th Alabama Infantry Reserves Battalion in March of 1865 and designated as the 65th Infantry Regiment.
Field Officers: Lt. Col. Edward M. Underhill (1842-1904; promoted Col., 65th AL); Major E. T. Starke
The 4th Alabama Infantry Battalion (also known as the 10th Infantry Battalion) was organized in Nashville with three companies in November 1861. It was redesignated as Snodgrass’ 16th Infantry Battalion on 8 May 1862. The battalion was first assigned to Gen’l John P. Breckinridge’s Brigade, Reserves, Central Army of Kentucky, Department #2 (February through March 1862), and it was then assigned to R. P. Trabue’s Brigade, Reserve Corps, Army of the Mississippi, Dept. #2 (March through May, 1862). It fought at the Battle of Shiloh (6-7 April 1862) and in the Corinth Campaign (April through June, 1862).
Field officer: Major James M. Clifton.
The 4th Regiment, Alabama Reserves, was organized at Mobile during the fall of 1864 by consolidating the 1st, 3rd, and 4th AL Reserve Battalions. The men, between the ages of 16 and 18, were from Mobile and Conecuh, Coosa, Dale and Macon counties. The unit was assigned to the District of the Gulf and became a part of the Mobile defense force. In December 1864, the regiment moved to East Mississippi, but after a few weeks it was ordered to Montgomery. With a force of about 300 men, it saw action at Girard. Most of the unit were captured, and those few remaining men were included in the surrender of the Dept. of Alabama, Mississippi, and East Louisiana.
Some of Co. “B” and “C” had prior service in the 1st Mobile Volunteers Regiment, or in the Alabama Militia. Co. “D” also served as Co. “D”, City Battalion.
Field and Staff Officers: Col. William M. Stone; Lt. Cols. Stewart W. Cayce, E. M. Underhill; Majors S. B. Waring, and S. F. Strickland.
[Compiled from information supplied by Greg J. Griffin, Helena, AL]
On 10 August 1861, Confederate Capt. Thomas B. Bush was sent home to Jacksonville, AL, to recruit and organize a new company for war. This company became Co. “B” (Calhoun Sharpshooters) of the 5th AL Battalion. Once formed, the Sharpshooters moved by rail to Richmond to join the Army of Northern Virginia.
The 5th Alabama Infantry Battalion organized with three companies near Dumfries, VA, in December 1861 with men from Calhoun, Mobile, and Sumter counties. The unit was designated the 5th Infantry Battalion on 22 October 1862; it was attached to Whiting’s Division then was soon transferred to John Bell Hood’s. Sent to Richmond, the battalion was placed under the command of Brig. Gen’l James J. Archer and fought at Mechanicsville, 1st Cold Harbor, and Frazier’s Farm, with heavy loss. It was engaged at 2nd Manassas with loss, and with like result at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville.
At the end of June, 1863, Gen’l Lee was marching his army north into Pennsylvania. Archer’s Brigade (1st, 7th, 14th TN Regients, 13th AL Regiment, and 5th AL Battalion). On the morning of 1 July, the men were moved out along the Chambersburg Pike toward Gettysburg, four abreast, until they came in sight of a squadron of Union cavalry. The men were ordered to cross Marsh Creek and deploy a skirmish line. A shot rang out when the Union troopers spotted the Confederates. The Union cavalry retreated, but their artillery, located at the edge of town, opened. Archer’s Brigade, with the 5th Battalion in advance, rushed to a shallow creek, Willoughby run, until the Union resistance began to stiffen. Nonetheless, the Confederates drove the cavalry across the run and started up a hill where they ran into the men of the Iron Brigade where a hard fought and unequal contest began. In the fierce fighting, the battalion lost over 30% of the 135 it had engaged. Reduced to only three companies, the battalion was placed on provost duty in A. P. Hill’s 3rd Corps. It remained in Virginia until the end, losing several on the march to Appomattox, where it surrendered 125 men (including 55 in Co. “B”).
Field officers: Lt. Cols. F. B. Shepherd; Henry H. Walker; and Major A. Sebastian Van de Graaff (Sumter; wounded, before Richmond, Fredericksburg)
- Muster roll (Co. “A” only) [Use your browser’s “back” button to return here]
- Flag [Notes, photograph]
The 7th Alabama Infantry was organized at Pensacola, 18 May 1861, with 8 infantry and 2 mounted companies. It was composed of companies that had rendezvoused at that place from the counties of Autauga, Barbour, Butler, Calhoun, Chambers, Cherokee, Dallas, Jackson, Lauderdale, Madison, Montgomery, Pike, and Wilcox. It remained on duty there until November when it was ordered to Chattanooga, and then a month later, it was sent to Bowling Green. It was in a temporary brigade under Col. S. A. M. Wood, and it fell back with the army to Corinth. The time of service of most of the companies expired after 12 months during the first week in April, 1862, and the regiment disbanded. However, the two mounted companies from Autauga and Lauderdale retained their organization and fought at Shiloh, as did other men from the regiment. The mounted companies then became part of the 3rd Alabama Cavalry, and the majority of the remaining men and officers joined other organizations.
Field and staff officers: Col. Sterling A. M. Wood (Lauderdale; promoted); Lt. Col. John G. Coltart (Madison); Major Alfred A. Russell (Jackson); and Adjutants Simeon Dean (Chambers; promoted); S. A. McClung (Madison; transferred to Gen’l Wood’s staff) John J. D.
9th Alabama Infantry Battalion [See, 58th Alabama Infantry Regiment]
The 13th Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized at Montgomery, 19 July 1861, with men from Butler, Coosa, Elmore, Macon, Montgomery, Randolph, Talladega, Tallapoosa, and Wilcox counties. It at once proceeded to Virginia. Ordered to Yorktown, it was there brigaded under Gen’l Gabriel J. Rains. It lay at that place until the army fell back on Richmond the following spring. At Seven Pines, the regiment was engaged warmly and suffered 7 k and 45 w. Held in reserve during the battles in front of Richmond, it was nevertheless subjected there to a destructive fire from which it suffered severely (101 k and w). As part of Gen’l James J. Archer’s Brigade, under Gen’l Alfred H. Colquitt of Georgia, the regiment took part in the first Maryland campaign, losing lightly at Boonsboro and then heavily at Sharpsburg. The winter was passed on the Rappahannock, and its monotony was relieved by the repulse of the Union Gen’l Ambrose Burnside at Fredericksburg, of which the 13th was a witness; and where it suffered lightly. Col. B. D. Fry led the brigade in the assault on Union Gen’l Joseph Hooker at Chancellorsville, and there the 13th lost 140 of the 460 men with which it went into the battle. It was in the Pennsylvania campaign, and at Gettysburg, the regiment suffered over 50% casualties of the 308 engaged. Retiring to Virginia, the 13th passed the winter of 1863-1864 mostly in camp. At The Wilderness, the regiment actively participated, and their loss was comparatively heavy. It took part in the subsequent operations around Petersburg, being now in the brigade of Gen’l John C. C. Sanders of Greene (8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, and 14th Alabama regiments) — subsequently commanded by Gen’l W. H. Forney of Calhoun. Under Col. James Aiken, the remnant of 6 officers and 85 men surrendered at Appomattox. Of the 1245 men on the rolls, about 150 were killed in battle, or died of wounds; 275 died of disease; 64 were transferred; and 202 were discharged.
Field and staff officers: Cols. Birkett D. Fry (Tallapoosa; wounded, Seven Pines, Sharpsburg, Gettysburg; captured, Gettysburg; promoted); James Aiken (Randolph); Lt. Cols. Julius C. B. Mitchell (Montgomery; resigned); Reginald H. Dawson (Wilcox; resigned); William H. Betts (Macon; resigned); James Aiken (wounded, Chancellorsville, Bristow Station; promoted); Majors Samuel B. Marks (Montgomery; resigned); William H. Betts (promoted); James Aiken (promoted); John T. Smith (Randolph; KIA, Chancellorsville); and Adjutants James D. Clark (Wilcox; transferred to line); John Rentz (Wilcox; KIA, Sharpsburg); T. W. S. Hendon (Randolph; wounded, Chancellorsville; retired); L. P. Broughton (Butler; KIA, The Wilderness)
The 16th Alabama Infantry Battalion (also called the 4th Alabama Infantry Battalion; also numbered 15th; formerly Clifton’s 4th or 10th Battalion) was organized at Corinth, Mississippi, during the spring of 1862. It contained six companies and was active in the defense of Vicksburg and Gen’l John P. Breckinridge’s operations near Baton Rouge. It fought at Corinth under Gen’l Albert Rust, then was assigned to Gen’l Abraham Buford’s Brigade, Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana. During February 1863, it merged into the 55th Alabama Regiment.
Field officers: Lt. Col. John Snodgrass; Majors G. L. Alexander; John H. Gibson.
The 16th Alabama Infantry regiment was assembled at Courtland, AL, on 6 August, 1861, and it contained men from Russell, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Franklin, Cherokee, and Marion counties. The unit was ordered to Knoxville, TN, then KY where it fought at Fishing Creek (lost 64 men) under General Felix Zollicoffer. Later it was assigned to General Sterling Wood’s (with the 33rd AL, 44th TN, and 32nd and 33rd MS regiments), Mark Lowrey’s (same regiments, with the 45th AL was added), and Charles Shelley’s brigades. After taking part in the battles of Shiloh (lost 162 men) and Perryville (held in reserve, not actively engaged), the 16th participated in the campaigns of the Army of Tennessee from Murfreesboro to Atlanta (losses were 200 in the campaign), moved with Hood to TN, then saw action in NC. In September, 1861, the regiment totaled 867 effectives. It sustained 168 casualties at Murfreesboro, and lost fifty-nine percent of the 414 engaged at Chickamauga. During December, 1863, there were 302 present for duty and 202 arms. It lost 150 killed and wounded at Jonesboro and half its remaining force were disabled at Franklin and Nashville, including all officers. On 26 April 1865, about 50 officers and men surrendered, their unit having been consolidated with the 1st and 45th AL regiments.
Field officers: Cols. Frederick A. Ashford, A. H. Helvenston, and William B. Wood; and Lt. Colonels John W. Harris, Joseph J. May, and John H. McGaughy.
- Flag [Notes, photograph]
- Muster roll (Co. “B”) [Use your browser’s “back” button to return here]
The 17th Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized at Montgomery in August, 1861. In November, it moved to Pensacola and was present at the bombardment there that month and again in January. In March 1862, the regiment was sent to western Tennessee where it was brigaded under J. K. Jackson of Georgia, with the 18th, 21st, and 24th Alabama regiments. The unit fought at Shiloh and lost 125 k and w. A month later, it was in the fight at Framington, with few casualties. In the autumn, when Gen’l Braxton Bragg moved into Kentucky, the 17th, weakened by illness, was left at Mobile. It was there drilled as heavy artillery and had charge of eight batteries on the shore of the bay. It remained at that post until March 1864 when it was ordered to Rome, GA. The brigade consisted of the 17th and 29th Alabama regiments, and the 1st and 26th Alabama and 37th Mississippi regiments were soon after added. The brigade was commanded at different times by Gen’l Cantey of Russell, Col. Murphey of Montgomery, Col. O’Neal of Lauderdale, and Gen’l Shelley of Talladega. The regiment was engaged at the Oostenaula bridge and in the three days’ battle of Resaca, with severe loss. The 17th had its full share of the campaigning from Dalton to Jonesboro, fighting almost daily, especially at Cassville, New Hope, Kennesaw, Lost Mountain, and Atlanta. In the battle of Peachtree Creek, it lost 130 k and w, and on the 28th of July, 180 k and w. The entire loss from Resaca to Lovejoy’s Station was 586, but few of whom were captured. The regiment moved into Tennessee with Gen’l John Bell Hood and lost two-thirds of its force at Franklin; a number of the remainder were captured at Nashville. A remnant moved into North Carolina and a part fought at Bentonville. It was then consolidated with the 29th and 33rd Alabama regiments, with E. P. Holcombe of Lowndes as colonel, J. F. Tate of Russell as lieutenant colonel, and Willis J. Milner of Butler as major. The regiment surrendered at Greensboro, NC, in April, 1865.
Field officers: Cols. Thomas H. Watts (Montgomery, resigned); R. C. Fariss (Montgomery, resigned); and Virgil S. Murphey (Montgomery, captured at Franklin); Lt. Cols. R. C. Fariss (promoted); Virgil S. Murphey (promoted); and Edward P. Holcombe (Lowndes, wounded at Resaca); and Majors Virgil S. Murphey (promoted) and Thomas J. Burnett (Butler, wounded at Atlanta).
The 21st Alabama Infantry Regiment was mustered into service on 13 October 1861, in Mobile, and remained at Hall’s Mill and Fort Gaines until ordered to Fort Pillow in March 1862. It remained there a few days and then moved to Corinth where it was brigaded under Gen’l Adley Gladden. The regiment took part in the Battle of Shiloh where it lost six color-bearers in succession, and 200 k and w out of about 650 engaged. It was complimented in general orders. On the return to Corinth, the regiment was reorganized and extended in enlistment from one year to “for the war.” The 21st was at Farmington, but with few casualties. In the summer, the regiment was ordered to Mobile and was on garrison duty at Fort Morgan and at Oven and Choctaw Bluffs. Non-commissioned officers and men of companies “G” and “H”, predominantly of French and Spanish ancestry, were transferred to the 1st Louisiana Infantry Regiment, and two other companies joined the 21st on 24 March 1864.
While the regiment lay at Mobile, a “submarine,” the H. L. Hunley, was constructed to operate against the blockading squadron. Direction of the project was handled by Engineers, Lt. W. A. Alexander and Lt. George E. Dixon, with several men from the regiment. After successful trials, Dixon and his men accompanied the Hunley to Charleston. There it went to sea on 17 February 1864 and blew up the USS Housatonic of the Federal blockading squadron. The Hunley and its crew were, however, lost at sea. Dixon was a Kentuckian by birth and an engineer by profession. (Additional information on the submarine, Hunley, or its recovery, may be found at theC.S.S. Hunley Submarine Recovery Information site, or at The Hunley Web Site.)
The 21st was at Pollard a short time under Gen’l James Cantey but was then ordered to the defenses of Mobile. Two companies were stationed at Fort Powell, where, with a loss of one killed, they withstood a bombardment of a fortnight from five gunboats and six mortar boats which attempted to force an entrance through Grant’s Pass. Six companies of the regiment were captured at Fort Gaines, and two at Fort Morgan; but the two at Fort Powell blew up and evacuated that post. The men capturted at Fort Gaines were exchanged, the others were not. The remainder of the regiment was part of the garrison of Spanish Fort, where it lost about 10 k and 25 w. The 21st was surrendered at Cuba Station, Sumter County, 6 May 1865, and paroled at Meridian, MS, about 250 strong. The 21st was composed largely of artisans from Mobile, many of whom were detached to assist in the various government works; the remainder had been recruited from Baldwin, Greene, Marengo, Montgomery, and Washington counties. [Thanks to Larry A. Schultz for his assistance.]
Field and staff officers: Cols. James Crawford (Mobile; resigned, 30 April 1862); Charles D. Anderson (Mobile; captured, Fort Gaines); Lt. Cols. Andrew J. Ingersoll (Mobile; resigned, 27 March 1862); Stewart W. Cayce (Mobile; resigned, 19 may 1862); Charles Somerville Stewart (Mobile; KIA, Fort Morgan, 30 April 1863); James Madison Williams (Mobile); Majors Frederick Stewart (Mobile; resigned, 31 March 1862); James Madison Williams (promoted); Charles B. Johnston (Mobile; took oath of allegiance to US, 27 Dec 1864); and Adjutants Stewart W. Cayce (promoted); James M. Williams (transferred to line); George Vidmer (Mobile; wounded, Spanish Fort); Charles LeB. Collins (temporary); and Gideon M. Parker
The 24th Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized at Mobile in August 1861, with men from Clarke, Mobile, Pickens, Shelby, and Talladega counties. It remained at Fort Morgan until April 1862. It then moved to Corinth and was brigaded under Gen’l John K. Jackson of Georgia. The regiment was first under fire at Blackland and Farmington, with trifling loss. It shared the privations of the Kentucky campaign but was not engaged. Placed in the brigade of Gen’l Arthur M. Manigault of Scouth Carolina, with the 28th and 34th Alabama and two South Carolina regiments, the 24th took part at Murfreesboro where it lost 118 k and w. It moved back with the army to the line of Chattanooga. In the grand forward movement at Chicamauga, the regiment lost 200 k and w. It was engaged at Mission Ridge with about 25 casualties. After wintering at Dalton, the regiment fought all the way down from Crow Valley to Jonesboro, losing abou 300 men, principally in the casualties of battle. With the army, the 24th moved into Tennessee and was engaged at Columbia, Franklin, and Nashville, but without severe loss in either. The regiment was part of the army that proceeded to the Carolinas, and it was in the fight at Salisbury. Just before the surrender, it was consolidated with the 28th and 34th Alabama regiments, with J. C. Carter of Montgomery as Colonel, Starke H. Oliver of Mobile as Lt. Col., and P. G. Wood of Dallas as Major. At the time of the surrender, near High Point, North Carolina, it was in Sharp’s Brigade, D. H. Hill’s Division, Stephen D. Lee’s Corps, and numbered about 125 men.
Field and staff officers: William A. Buck (Mobile; wounded, Murfreesboro; resigned); Newton N. Davis (Pickens; wounded, Franklin, and captured); Lt. Cols. William M. LeBaron (Mobile; resigned); William B. Dennett (Mobile; resigned); Newton N. Davis (promoted); Benjamin F. Sawyer (Talladega; retired); George A. Jennison (Mobile); Majors William B. Dennett (promoted); Newton N. Davis (promoted); Junius J. Pierce (Shelby); and Adjutants George A. Jennison (promoted); and George B. Enholm (Mobile)
- Flag [Co. “E”, notes, photograph]
- Photographs: Sgt. William Thomas Goff, Co. “I” [Photograph courtesy Deborah Stone Ward, Daniel Ward]
The 27th Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized at Fort Heiman, Tennessee, on 28 January 1862, a number of companies having flocked to that point in the winter of 1861 from Franklin, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Madison, Mobile, and Morgan counties. Ordered to Fort Henry, the regiment shared in the defence of that place, but it retired before the surrender, forming part of the garrison of Fort Donelson. It took part in the conflict there and was there surrendered, 16 February 1862. A number of the command were hospitalized and were not therefore captured. They organized into two companies, joined the 33rd Mississippi Regiment, and lost 8 k and 25 w at the Battle of Perryville. The main body of the regiment was exchanged on 4 September, 1862, and was ordered to Port Hudson where it was joined by the other two companies. It remained in that vicinity during the winteer and was brigaded under Gen’l Abraham Buford of Kentucky, William Loring’s Division. At Baker’s Creek, the 27th was engaged and then retired from the field with Loring’s Division. It was then in the trenches at Jackson for 10 days, retreating with the army across the Pearl River. The regiment passed the winter at Canton, and in the spring of 1864 was sent to the vicinity of Tuscumbia to recruit, being greatly reduced in numbers. A detachment of the regiment crossed the Tennessee River in April 1864 and captured about 100 of the enemy. It was soon after ordered to Dalton and placed in Thomas Scott’s Brigade with the 12th Louisiana, and 35th, 49th, 55th, and 57th Alabama regiments, Loring’s Division, Alexander Stewart’s Corps. The 27th was from that time forward sharing in the trials of the Army of Tennessee, fighting with much loss throughout the Atlanta Campaign, and forming part of the last Confederate wave at Franklin and Nashville. There were only a few who were present to move into the Carolinas, and the regiment was ultimately consolidated with the 35th, 49th, and 57th Alabama regiments. The remainder surrendered at Greensboro, North Carolina, 9 April 1865.
Field officers: Cols. Adolphus A. Hughes (Franklin; captured, Fort Donelson; died in service); James Jackson (Lauderdale; wounded, Kenesaw Mountain); Lt. Cols. James Jackson (captured, Fort Donelson; promoted); Edward McAlexander (Lauderdale); and Majors Edward McAlexander (captured, Fort Donelson; promoted); R. G. Wright (Franklin)
The 29th Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized at Pensacola in February, 1862, by the addition of two companies to the Fourth Alabama Battalion – a body of eight companies, which had been organized the autumn before at Montgomery. The regiment, recruited from Barbour, Bibb, Blount, Conecuh, Montgomery, Russell, Shelby, and Talladega counties, remained at Pensacola until it was evacuated, suffering much from diseases that usually afflict raw troops. It then lay between Pollard and Pensacola for over a year, when it was ordered to Mobile. The regiment was there from July 1863 to April 1864, except for a short time that it was at Pollard. The regiment joined the Army of Tennessee at Resaca with over 1,000 men, in time to initiate the Atlanta-Dalton campaign. It was brigaded with the 1st, 17th, and 26th Alabama, and 37th Mississippi regiments, commanded at different intervals by Col. Murphey of Montgomery, Gen’l O’Neal of Lauderdale, and Gen’l Shelley of Talladega. The 29th was engaged at the Battle of Resaca with a loss of about 100 k and w, out of 1100 men engaged. At New Hope Church, the loss was very heavy, and at Peach Tree Creek, the regiment was cut to pieces. On 28 July, near Atlanta, half of the regiment was killed and wounded in the fierce and protracted assault on the enemy’s line. The 29th then moved into Tennessee with Gen’l John Bell Hood and lost very heavily in casualties at Franklin, and largely in casualties and prisoners at Nashville. A remnant of it moved into the Carolinas where it was engaged at Kinston and Bentonville with considerable loss. It was consolidated with the 1st and 17th Regiments early in 1865, and fewer than 90 men surrendered at Durham Station, Orange County, NC on 26 April 1865.
Field and Staff Officers: Cols. Jonathan R. F Tatnall (GA; transferred to the navy); John F. Conoley (Dallas); Lt. Cols. J. F. Conoley (promoted); Benjamin Morris (Barbour); Majors Benjamin Morris (promoted); Henry B. Turner (Talladega; wounded, Atlanta); Adjutants Lemuel D. Hatch (Greene; transferred); Benjamin H. Screws (Barbour; transferred to line); James Stephenson (Virginia)
The Thirty-third Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized at Pensacola, FL, on 23 April 1862, with men recruited from Butler, Coffee, Covington, Dale, and Montgomery counties. It proceeded to Corinth just after the Battle of Shiloh. Placed in the brigade commanded by Col. Hawthorn of Arkansas, the regiment remained at Tupelo untill the Kentucky Campaign began. It was part of the brigade of Gen’l Sterling A. M. Wood of Lauderdale, Gen’l Simon Buckner’s Division, and was present at the capture of Munfordsville. At Perryville, the Thirty-third entered that conflict about 500 strong, and came out with but 88 rank and file. It came out of Kentucky with the army, and at Murfeesboro the loss of the regiment was comparatively large, for it was in Gen’l Patrick Cleburne’s Division. The remainder of the winter was spent in camps near Tullahoma, and the regiment retired behind the Tennessee River during the summer. In the grand forward movement on the enemy’s line at Chickamauga, the Thirty-third lost 149 casualties. Gen’l Mark Perrin Lowrey of Mississippi relieved Gen’l Wood after the latter was wounded and assumed command of the brigade [16th, 33rd Mississippi regiments, and J. H. Gibson’s (18th AL) and Newman’s (TN) battalions] the Thirty-third was effectively engaged at Missionary Ridge without loss. It was part of the wall of fire that checked the exultant federals at Ringgold Gap, where it lost but one man. The regiment passed the winter at Dalton, and was in the incessant battle from there to Atlanta, fighting during the day and entrenching at night, and losing many by the casualties of battle, particularly at New Hope Church, and around Atlanta. Having followed Gen’l John Bell Hood into Tennessee, it moved to the assault of the enemy’s works at Franklin, with 285 men, and lost over two-thirds of them, mostly killed. Transferred to North Carolina, the Thirty-third took part in the operations there, and a remnant was there surrendered.
Field and staff officers: Cols. Samuel Adams (Butler; wounded, Perryville; KIA, Kennesaw Mountain); Robert F. Crittenden (Coffee; captured, Nashville); Lt. Cols. Daniel H. Horn ( Coffee; resigned); Robert F. Crittenden (promoted); James H. Dunklin (Butler); Majors Robert F. Crittenden (promoted); James H. Dunklin (wounded, Chickamauga; promoted); and Adjutants John Crosby Stallworth (Conecuh; died, Tupelo); A. M. Moore (Greene; KIA, Chickamauga); Willis J. Milner (Butler)
- Flag [Notes, photograph]
- Muster roll [Scroll down; use your browser’s “back” button to return here.]
The 34th Alabama Infantry was organized at Loachapoka on 15 April 1862, with companies recruited from Montgomery and the counties of Coosa, Russell, and Tallapoosa. It was sent to Tupelo, MS, and was placed with the 24th and 28th Alabama regiments, and two South Carolina regiments, in Gen’l Arthur M. Manigault’s Brigade, Gen’l Jones M. Wither’s Division. The regiment moved into Kentucky but was not in action during the campaign. It was with the main Army of Tennessee when it fought at Murfreesboro, and it sustained heavy casualties (11 k, 77 w). The remainder of the winter was spent near Tullahoma, and the regiment then withdrew with the army to the Chattanooga area. At Chickamauga, the 34th again lost heavily, and at Missionary Ridge, a large number were captured. The regiment, numbering 388 men and 281 arms, wintered and recruited for the campaigning of 1864 at Dalton and began the “Hundred Days’ Battle” in the spring. From Dalton to Atlanta, the 34th shared fully in the operations of the Army of Tennessee. It lost heavily in the battles of 22 and 28 July, at Atlanta. At Jonesboro, casualties were light. At the Battle of Franklin, the 34th escaped the severest part of the fighting, but at Nashville, the remainder of the unit was nearly decimated. With the wreck of the Army, the regiment passed into the Carolinas where it skirmished at Kinston and again at Bentonville. Ultimately consolidated with the 24th and 28th regiments, about 100 of the original 1,000 members of the regiment were surrendered at High Point, North Carolina, 26 April 1865.
Field officers: Col. Julius C. B. Mitchell (Montgomery, detached). Lt. Cols. James W. Echols (Macon, resigned); John C. Carter (Montgomery, wounded at Murfreesboro). Majors Henry R. McCoy (Tallapoosa, resigned); John N. Slaughter (Coosa, wounded at Atlanta).
The 35th Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized at Lagrange, 12 Marchl 1862, with about 750 men recruited from Franklin, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Limestone, and Madison counties. Ordered to Corinth, it was there brigaded under Gen’l John C. Breckinridge. It followed that officer to Louisiana and took part in the attack on Baton Rouge, losing 4 k and 21 w. It was part of the force with which Gen’l Earl Van Dorn assaulted Corinth; casualties were heavy. Placed under Gen’l James Buford, the regiment was under fire at the first bombardment of Port Hudson. It passed some time in that vicinity, and in May 1863, the regiment was engaged at Baker’s Creek with light loss. Escaping the perils of Vicksburg by following Gen’l William W. Loring out of the battle, the 35th was soon after sent to the Army of Tennessee; but in February 1864 went back to Mississippi to confront Union Gen’l William T. Sherman’s advance. The regiment was now in the brigade of Gen’l T. B. Scott of Louisiana, consisting of the 27th, 49th, 55th, and 57th Alabama, and 12th Louisiana. Rejoining the Army of Tennessee, the 35th was part of the resolute column that stood in front of Sherman’s army during the struggles in north Georgia and Atlanta. During that time, it lost 65 k and w on 22 July at Atlanta, and 27 k and w on the 28th. The regiment moved into Tennessee with Gen’l John Bell Hood and was in the advance in the attack on the outpost at Decatur, where it lost 35 k and w. At the Battle of Franklin, the 35th lost 150 k and w, one half of its effective force. The loss at Nashville was light, and the remnant of the regiment proceeded eastward to renew their struggle in the Carolinas. The 35th, 55 officers and men, was surrendered with the Army of Tennessee.
Field and staff officers: Cols. James W. Robertson (Franklin; resigned); Edward Goodwin (Franklin; died in service); Samuel S. Ives (Lauderdale; wounded, Franklin); Lt. Cols. Edward Goodwin (promoted); Samuel S. Ives (promoted); Alva E. Ashford (Lawrence); Majors William H. Hunt (Franklin; transferred); Samuel S. Ives (promoted); Alva E. Ashford (promoted); and John S. Dickson (Madison; KIA, Franklin)
The 37th Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized at Auburn, in the spring of 1862, under the requisition of President Jefferson Davis for 12,000 more Alabamians. The members were recruited from Barbour, Chambers, Henry, Macon, Pike, Russell, and Tallapoosa counties. Ordered to Columbus, MS, after a short time, the regiment proceeded to Tupelo. There it was placed in Gen’l Henry Little’s Division, and in the Brigade of Col. Martin of TN, with three Mississippi regiments. Gen’l Dabney Herndon Maury succeeded Gen’l Little when the latter was killed at Iuka, where the 37th was first engaged, with some loss. The regiment took part in the Battle of Corinth, losing heavily in casualties. The brigade commander fell at Corinth, and the 37th was thrown into a brigade with the 2nd TX, and 42nd AL, Gen’l John C. Moore commanding. The winter was spent in MS — the regiment retreating from Holly Springs and taking part in the repulse of the invaders at Chickasaw Bayou. Early in 1863, the 37th was sent to the Sunflower River but went back in time to take part in the battles of Port Gibson and Champion Hill, where its losses were severe. The regiment was then assigned to the garrison of Vicksburg and was captured with the fortress. Exchanged soon after, the regiment was in parole camp at Demopolis. Ordered to the Army of Tennessee, it lost heavily at Lookout Mountain and quite a number at Mission Ridge. The winter passed at Dalton, GA, where Gen’l Alpheus Baker of Barbour took charge of the brigade. The regiment was then engaged at Chattanooga (73 casualties our of 407 men present), Resaca, Noonday Creek, Kennesaw, and the battles around Atlanta. In one charge at Atlanta, 22 July, the regimental commander and 40 men were killed outright, out of 300 men present. During the fall and winter, the 37th was on garrison duty at Spanish Fort but moved into NC. It broke the enemy line at Bentonville, and furled its colors a few days later, with 300 of its number present out of the 1100 who took the field originally.
Field officers: Col. James F. Dowdell (Chambers Co., captured at Vicksburg and retired). Lt. Cols. A. A. Greene (Chambers Co., wounded, Iuka, Mission Ridge; KIA, Atlanta); and W. F. Slaton (Macon Co.). Majors John P. W. Amorine (Pike Co., transferred); W. F. Slaton (wounded, Corinth; captured, Lookout Mountain; promoted); and Joel C. Kendrick (Covington Co.)
[The 37th Alabama Infantry Regiment, Consolidated, was organized on 9 April 1865 by combining the original 37th Alabama with the 42nd and 54th Alabama regiments, at Smithfield, NC. The unit(s) surrendered on 26 April 1865 at Durham Station, Orange County, NC. Field officers: Col. John A. Minter and Lt. Col. William D. McNeill.]
The 40th Alabama Infantry was organized in May 1862 at Mobile, with men raised in Choctaw, Colbert, Covington, Mobile Morgan, Perry , Pickens, and Sumter counties. It remained in Mobile until December when it was moved to Vicksburg to take part in the operations on Deer Creek. While there, it was brigaded with the 37th and 42nd Alabama, and 2nd Texas, under Gen’l J. C. Moore. Four companies were there transferred to Gen’l Ector’s Brigade, Gen’l Braxton Bragg’s Army of Tennessee and fought at Chickamauga. The other companies of the 40th were part of the garrison of Vicksburg, suffered severely, and were there captured. The regiment was reunited near Mission Ridge and took part in that battle and at Lookout Mountain, but with light loss. Having passed the winter at Dalton, GA, where Gen’l A. Baker took command of the brigade, the 40th took part in the campaign from there to Atlanta, with losses especially heavy at New Hope. When the army marched back to Tennessee, in company with the other regiments of Baker’s Brigade, the 40th was sent to Mobile and was on garrison duty there for some months. In January 1865, the regiment proceeded with the remainder of the army to North Carolina and shared in the operations, fighting at Bentonville with severe loss. Consolidated with the 19th and 46th, the 40th was shortly after surrendered at Durham Station, NC, 26 April 1865.
Field and staff officers: Cols. Augustus A. Coleman (Sumter; resigned); John H. Higley (Mobile; captured, Vicksburg); Lt. Cols. John H. Higley (promoted); Thomas Stone (Pickens; died in service); Ezekiel S. Gully (Sumter); Majors Thomas Stone (promoted); Ezekiel S. Gully (promoted); Elbert D. Willett (Pickens).; and Adjutant Clarence H. Ellerbee (KIA, Bentonville).
The 42nd Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized at Columbus, MS, in May 1862, composed principally of men who reorganized, in two or three instances, as entire companies after serving a year as the 2nd Alabama Infantry Regiment. Members came primarily from Conecuh, Fayette, Marion, Mobile, Monroe, Pickens, Talladega, and Wilcox counties. The regiment joined Gen’ls Price and Van Dorn at Ripley in September, and was brigaded under Gen’l John C. Moore of Texas. A month later, the 42nd went into the Battle of Corinth with 700 men (losing 98 k and about 250 w or captured). It wintered in Mississiippi, Moore’s Brigade being reorganized with the 37th, 40th and 42nd Alabama, and the 2nd Texas regiments. It was part of the garrision of Vicksburg and lost 10 k and about 50 w there, with the remainder captured at the surrender of the fortress. The 42nd was in parole camp at Demopolis, then it joined the Army of Tennessee. It fought with severe losses at Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge, and it wintered at Dalton, GA. Gen’l Baker of Barbour then took command of the brigade (Clayton’s [Stewart’s] Division, Polk’s Corps). In the spring, the 42nd fought at Resaca with a loss of 59 k and w. It was then continually skirmishing until the battle of New Hope, where its loss was comparatively light as it was at Atlanta the 22nd of July. On the 28th of July, the loss was heavy . A few days later, the regiment was sent to Spanish Fort where it remained on garrison duty during the fall and until January 1865. It then moved into North Carolina, participated in the battle of Bentonville, and surrendered with the army.
Field and staff officers: Cols. John W. Portis (Clarke; wounded, Corinth; resigned); Thomas C. Lanier (Pickens; wounded, New Hope); Lt. Col. Thomas C. Lanier (wounded, Corinth; promoted); Major W. C. Fergus (Mobile; captured, Missionary Ridge); and Adjutants Thomas J. Portis (Dallas; resigned); and Thomas Gaillard (Mobile)
- History, muster roll [Use your browser’s “back” button to return here]
The 45th Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized at Auburn in May 1862. Companies that made up the unit were from the counties of Barbour, Randolph, Lowndes, Macon, and Russell. It was immediately sent to Corinth. At Tupelo it lost many men by disease, but in the autumn it moved into KY, part of Patton Anderson’s Brigade. It charged a battery at Perryville and suffered severely in casualties. The regiment came out of KY with the army and was soon after engaged in the battle of Murfreesboro where its casualties were numerous. Placed in the brigade of Gen’l Sterling A. M. Wood of Lauderdale, Cleburne’s Division (with the 16th, 26th, 50th, and 33rd AL regiments), the 45th remained on duty with the Army of Tennessee, passing the first half of the year 1863 at Tullahoma. it fought under the eye of Gen’l Pat Cleburne at Chicamauga, and its mutilated ranks told the eloquent story of its services. Gen’l Mark Lowery of Mississippi succeeded to the command of the brigade, and the 45th was present at Mission Ridge and Ringgold Gap with slight loss. The winter was passed at Dalton, and the regiment took a full share in the Dalton-Atlanta campaign, especially at Resaca, and at New Hope, where Cleburne’s Division grappled with Union Gen’l John A. Logan’s Corps. On the 22nd of July, at Atlanta, “Death” reveled in its ranks, and half the regiment went down on the hard-fought field. Six weeks later it again fought “where Cleburne crossed the line” at Jonesboro, with considerable loss. Then followed the long and disastrous march into TN. The 45th opened the battle at Franklin the evening before by a brilliant fight at Springhill, and the next day was in the bloody and desperate assault of Cleburne’s Division on the enemy’s works, and was almost annihilated around the corpse of its heroic division commander. Its colors floated before Nashville, and a remnant of the 45th moved into North Carolina. It was there consolidated with other Alabama regiments, and surrendered with Gen’l Joseph E. Johnston’s forces.
Statistics: It was organized with 750 men, reported 91 casualties at Murfreesboro, and 117 at Chickamauga, and totaled 366 effectives and 309 arms in December 1863. The regiment lost 27 k, 72 w, and 32 missing at the Battle of Atlanta and was almost annihilated at Franklin. Only a remnant surrendered on 26 April 1865.
Field officers: Cols. Ephraim B. Breedlove, James G. Gilchrist, Willism S. Goodwyn, and Harris D. Lampley; Lt. Col. Robert H. Abercrombie; and Major George C. Freeman.
- Flag [Co. “B”, notes, photograph]
- Contact person for historical records: Judy Wills, Huntsville, AL
[This regiment was originally mustered into service as the 31st (Hale’s) Alabama Infantry, but its designation was changed in the spring of 1863. It is also called the 52nd Alabama Regiment!] The 49th Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized at Nashville, in January 1862 with men from Blount, Colbert, DeKalb, Jackson, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Limestone, Madison, Marshall, and Morgan counties, and attached to the Kentucky Brigade of Gen’l John C. Breckinridge. It took part in the Battle of Shiloh where it lost 113 k and w. A few weeks later, the unit was reorganized as the 49th Regiment on 8 May 1862 and was sent to Vicksburg, with Breckinridge’s Brigade, and was engaged in the defence of the place when it was bombarded in 1862. On 6 Aug., the regiment fought at Baton Rouge with a loss of 45 k and w. Joining the army of Gen’l Earl Van Dorn, the 49th was engaged in the assault on Corinth and suffered very severely there. Consolidated with the 27th Infantry and 6th Battalion from October 1862 through January 1863, the regiment was ordered to Port Hudson to pass the winter. The regiment was brigaded with the 27th and 35th Alabama, and two Mississippi regiments under Gen’l Abraham Buford, who was soon succeeded by Gen’l William Beall. The 49th shared the dangers and hardships of the 42 days siege of Port Hudson, losing 55 men k and w with the reminder captured, 8 July 1863. Exchanged three months later, the 49th was re-organized at Cahaba and attached to the brigade of Gen’l Thomas M. Scott of Louisiana, with the 12th Louisiana, and 27th, 35th, 55th, and 57th Alabama regments. Joining the main army at Dalton, the brigade was assigned to William W. Loring’s Division, Alexander P. Stewart’s Corps. Having wintered at Dalton, the 49th participated in the Dalton-Atlanta Campaign, doing much arduous service, but losing inconsiderably. Around Atlanta, it was again fully engaged and suffered severely. It moved with Gen’l John Bell Hood into Tennessee and came out of the battles of Franklin and Nashville with a long list of casualties and captured men. Transferred to the Carolinas, the 49th took part in the operations there. Reduced to a skeleton and consolidated with the 27th, 35th, 55th and 57th Regiments, it was surrendered at Smithfield, NC, 9 April 1865.
Field and Staff Officers:Cols. Smith D. Hale (Madison; retired); Jeptha Edwards (DeKalb; captured, Port Hudson); Lt. Cols. M. Gilbreath (Marshall; resigned); William N. Crump (Blount; retired); John D. Weeden (Madison; wounded, Nashville, and captured); Majors B. C. Johnston (Marshall; retired); John D. Weeden (promoted); Thomas A. Street (Marshall; captured, Port Hudson); Adjutants John D. Weeden (promoted); C. E. Merrill (Dallas; wounded, Corinth, Franklin)
- Muster roll [Use your browser’s “back” button to return here]
[This regiment was designated the 26th Infantry for several months until it was learned that another 26th Infantry was already in Virginia; consequently, the regiment took the number 50, since many other regiments had been organized in the meantime.]51st Alabama Infantry Regiment
[The 51st is a mounted infantry regiment, and it is listed with Morgan’s Cavalry Brigade]52nd Alabama Infantry Regiment
[For this regiment, see the 49th Alabama Infantry Regiment.]53rd Alabama Infantry Regiment
[The 53rd is a mounted infantry regiment and is listed with Alabama cavalry units.]
The 54th Alabama Infantry Regiment was made up of six Alabama companies (“B”, “C”, “D”, “E”, “F”, and “I”) of the First Alabama-Mississippi-Tennessee Regiment of Col. Alpheus Baker, and four Alabama companies (“A”, “E”, “H”, and “K”) of the 40th Tennessee Regiment of Col. L. M. Walker. These companies had been captured at Island No. 10, after nearly a year’s arduous service above Memphis. Organized at Jackson, MS, in October, 1862, the 54th operated in the vicinity of Vicksburg during the winter. It fought at Ft. Pemberton with light loss and at Baker’s Creek with similar results. Having escaped Vicksburg by moving with Gen’l William W. Loring from Baker’s Creek, the 54th was soon after at the siege of Jackson. It was then transferred to the army of Gen’l Braxton Bragg. The regiment wintered at Dalton, GA, and was engaged in the campaign from there to Atlanta. The regiment lost severely at Resaca and at Atlanta (22 July). The loss was very heavy at Atlanta (28 July), with more than half the regiment being killed or wounded. The regimental flag was perforated by 40 bullets. Having moved with Gen’l John Bell Hood into middle Tennessee, the 54th shared the privations and disasters of that campaign. Transferred to North Carolina, it fought at Bentonville, its last battle. It was consolidated with the 37th and 42nd Infantry as the 37th Regiment on 9 April 1865. A remnant only were surrendered with the forces of Gen’l Joseph E. Johnston.
Field officers: Cols. Alpheus Baker (Barbour County, captured at Island No. 10; wounded at Baker’s Creek; promoted); John A Minter. Lt. Cols. John A. Minter (Coffee County, captured at Island No. 10; promoted); Thaddeus H. Shackelford. Major Thaddeus H. Shackelford (from Mississippi, captured at Island No. 10; promoted).
The 55th Alabama Infantry Regiment was made up of Snodgrass’ 16th and Norwood’s 6th infantry battalions, the former of six companies, the latter of five. Snodgrass’ Battalion was organized at Corinth in the spring of 1862 out of companies that had been in the service a year at that time, in the organizations of other states. They had fought at Shiloh, and the battalion itself had fought at the first siege of Vicksburg and in the battles of Baton Rouge and Corinth. Norwood’s Battalion was organized at Clinton, MS, out of the five companies of Alabamians which had fought and been captured at Fort Donelson while part of Quarles “Tennessee” regiment.
Organized at Port Hudson, Louisiana, in February 1863, with 900 veterans from Calhoun, Cherokee, Jackson, Madison, and Marshall counties, the 55th fought at Baker’s Creek in Gen’l Abraham Buford’s Brigade, Gen’l William W. Loring’s Division, losing considerably. It fought at jackson in the subsequent operations in Mississippi. As part of Gen’l Scott’s Brigade, the regiment was attached to the Army of Tennessee in the spring of 1864. It was much reduced by the constant fighting on the retreat from Dalton, but it entered the Battle of Peach Tree Creek (20 July 1864) with 22 officer and 256 men, losing 14 officer and 155 men k and w. After some further skirmishing, the 55th participated in the winter campaign in Tennessee, with long lists of casualties at both Franklin and Nashville. Proceeding to North Carolina, the regiment surrendered at Greensboro, much reduced, under Col. John Snodgrass, 26 April 1865.
Field and staff officers: Col. John Snodgrass (Jackson); Lt. Col. John H. Norwood (Jackson; wounded, Peach Tree Creek); Majors Joseph H. Jones (Jackson; KIA, Peach Tree Creek); James B. Dickey (Madison); and Adjutants Hal C. Bradford (detached); J. C. Howell (Cherokee; KIA, Peach Tree Creek)
[The 56th is a mounted infantry regiment and is listed with Alabama cavalry units.]
The 57th Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized at Troy, in Pike County, in March, 1863, as part of the brigade of Gen’l James H. Clanton of Montgomery. It was stationed at Mobile and Pollard until January 1864, when it moved to Demopolis. Brigaded there under Gen’l Abraham Buford (who was soon succeeded by Gen’l Thomas M. Scott) with the 12th Louisiana, 27th, 35th, and 55th Alabama, and another Louisiana regiment, the 57th joined the Army of the Tennessee in time to share fully the hardships of the Dalton-Atlanta campaign. The casualties of the regiment, however, were not severe until the Battle of Peach Tree Creek, when it was cut to pieces. The 57th participated in the movement into Tennessee, and at Franklin and Nashville, its losses were again large. Transferred to North Carolina, the regiment fought at Bentonville with severe loss. It surrendered there.
Field officers: Cols. J. P. W. Amerine (Pike County, superseded; C. J. L. Cunningham (Pike County, wounded at Franklin). Majors C. J. L. Cunningham (promoted); W. R. Arnold (Pike County, killed at Peachtree); J. Horatio Wiley (Pike County)
The 62nd Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized at Mobile in March, 1865, having changed designation from the 1st Regiment of Reserves, and using Lockhart’s Battalion as a nucleus (Lockhart’s Battalion was organized in Selma, January 1864.) The new regiment was first stationed at Fort Gaines and was in the bombardment of that place, losing several killed and wounded, and the remainder captured. Prisoners were taken to New Orleans and to Ship Island. They were exchanged in Mobile Bay, 4 Jan 1865 and placed in the garrison of Spanish Fort as part of Thomas’ Brigade (along with the 63rd Alabama). They then withstood the siege there for six days with some loss until relieved by Holtzclaw’s Brigade. The regiment continued to serve throughout the siege and following bombardment of Fort Blakely, losing a number killed and wounded, until it was captured in the final assault. Taken to Ship Island, the men were exchanged in time to be surrendered with the Department of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana, 4 May 1865. The regiment was composed wholly of young men, and they were complimented in special orders by Gen’l St. John Lidell for their conduct at Spanish Fort.
Field officers: Col. Daniel Huger (Mobile); Lt. Cols. James L. Davidson (Bibb, until reorganized); and Brunot Yniestre (captured at Blakely); and Majors Brunot Yniestre (Mobile, promoted); J. W. Pitts (Shelby, captured at Blakely).
The 63rd Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized at Fort Blakely in July 1864 with men who were nearly all conscripted from various parts of the state (excepting men in Co.’s “A” and “B” and the officers, who were mostly veterans) and who had been designated the 2nd Regiment of Reserves. The regiment remained in the defences of Mobile until ordered to Spanish Fort, three days before it was invested in March 1865. It was, with the 62nd Alabama, a part of Gen’l Thomas’ brigade, and it lost several killed and wounded during the first six days’ operations at Spanish Fort. Relieved and sent to Fort Blakely, the 63rd arrived there in time to endure the siege. After some loss, the regiment was captured with the fortress, 9 April 1865, about 300 in number. They were exchanged just prior to the surrender of the Department of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana, 4 May 1865.
Field officers: Cols. Oland S. Rice (until reorganized); and Junius A. Law (Macon, captured at Blakeley); Lt. Cols. Junius A. Law (promoted); and John H. Echols (Macon, captured at Blakely); Majors John H. Echols (promoted); and I. W. Suttle (Coosa, captured at Spanish Fort).
- Flag 65th Alabama Infantry Regiment
- The 65th Alabama Infantry Regiment resulted from the consolidation of the 4th Alabama Battalion (reserves), seven companies, which organized in July 1864 at Mobile, with William M. Stone of Sumter as lieutenant colonel, and E. M. Underhill of Mobile as major, and the 3rd Alabama Battalion (reserves). The battalion was in garrison at MobiIe, and in November was organized as the 65th regiment. In December, the regiment was sent to east Mississippi to repel raiders where it remained for several weeks. Ordered from Mobile to North Carolina, the regiment was stopped at Montgomery and ordered to report to Gen’l Abraham Buford. It retired before Union Gen’l James H. Wilson’s column to Girard, and participated in the battle there, losing several k and w, and the remainder mostly captured, 16 April 1865.Field and Staff Officers: Cols. E. M. Underhill (Mobile); Lt. Col. E. Toomer (Mobile); Majors S. B. Waring (Mobile); and Adjutants C. F. Westfeldt (Mobile; resigned); C. H. Minge (Mobile)